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GEM (Graphical Environemnt Manager) is based on one of the first graphical user interfaces (GUI) ever developed, by Digital Research labs, 1980's. It was the GUI distributed with TOS on the ST.

  • GEM was used more broadly than just on the ST. It started life as the GUI for CP/M operating system for use in IBM compatible. It was also implemented as an interface over DOS.
  • GEM was licenced to Atari to serve as the GUI for their TOS operating system in 1985. Interestingly, this was after a Microsoft offer was rejected because of estimates it would take more than a year to develop
  • Xerox connection... sued Digital for breach of patents?
  • Wikipedia link