LHArc

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THE EXPLORER'S GUIDE TO LHarc

It sometimes seems that versions of LHarc proliferate like rabbits, while
documentation, especially in English, is as rare as hen's teeth and what
there is is neither up to date nor comprehensive. This guide attempts to
throw some light on the subject and to provide a comprehensive guide to
LHarc 2.01, now the most commonly available version, with additional
information on the newest version 3.10 (junior).

CONTENTS

        1.0 BACKGROUND
        2.0 VERSIONS
        3.0 GETTING STARTED WITH VERSION 2.01
        4.0 USING LHarc 2.01
        5.0 PARAMETER USAGE
        6.0 COMMANDS
        7.0 TEMPORARY FILES
        8.0 SHELLS AND COMMAND LINE INTERFACES
        9.0 VERSION 2.20 and newer


1.0 BACKGROUND

LHarc has its origins in the world of MSDOS and UNIX and has been ported to
the ST by people like Jon Webb, Thomas Quester and Haruyasu Yoshizaki who
have put their versions in the public domain. Files are compressed using
the Lempel-ziv and Huffman algorithms which give it its name and file
extender (lzh) The archives themselves are portable across platforms at
least in principle; it is the archiving utility programmes that have to be
ST specific.

LHarc set out to produce more compact archives than ARC, at the expense of
being slower. New versions of both have changed the picture to some extent;
in particular, new versions of LHarc are much faster. In the PC world, and
now in that of the ST, Zip is challenging LHarc's position; it is fast,
compacts well and on the ST offers a user-friendly interface, allowing
files for archiving or extraction to be picked from a list and repeat
operations to be carried out without leaving the programme.

2.0 VERSIONS

There are three compression algorithms in the LHarc family corresponding to
three groups of programmes: identifying which you have is not always easy.

2.1     LARC
This does not use huffman encoding hence the missing h; it produces larger
files but packs and unpacks much faster than LHarc (only in versions <= 2.01).
This method is used in PFXPAK, a shareware programme packer by Thomas Quester.
The programme LARC itself is obsolete as LHarc 2.01 offers this compression
method with the /l switch.

2.2     lh1

The original lh1 algorithm is used by Jon Webb's LHarc.PRG (current
version, .51 or 0.6), a TOS programme which obligingly presents a list of
commands with a command line at the bottom. The list is comparatively
simple with only six switches:-

------------------------------------------------------------------------------
LHarc-ST, Archive utility, Version 0.51á, compiled on 17/11/89 at 15:12:58

  Usage: LHarc command archive [filenames]
< Commands >
     a - Add file(s) to archive          p - Extract to printer
     m - Move file(s) to archive         l/v - Short/Verbose list of archive
     e/x - Extract file(s) from archive  d - Delete file(s) in archive
     i - Extract with inquiry            r - Rename file in archive
     s - Extract to screen               t - Test archive integrity
< Switches >
     h - Hold after command              b - Retain backup copy of archive
     o - Overwrite existing files        n - No compression (store only)
     f - Floppy/TurboDos check off       c - Add comments
------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Thomas Quester's LHarc.ttp version 1.316 is regarded as the definitive
programme for the lh1 process. Its usage is similar to version 2.01.

2.3     lh5

The newer, faster lh5 algorithm is supported by Thomas Quester's 2.01,
usually named LHarc.TTP or LHAR201?.TTP, currently at version l. This uses
lh5 by default, but extracts either lh1 or larc without question and will
pack them if the right switches are used.

The newest arrival on the scene, in May 94, is Lharc 3.10 by Christian
Grunenberg and others, based on 2.01l and using the same commands but with
additional switches, the more extensive UNIX wildcards,a built in GEM-
interface and self-extracting files! It is spectacularly faster.
The following timings were for packing and unpacking the package of
programm and text files, totalling 261772 bytes, by which LHarc 2.20 was
distributed.

                                Time mins:secs
                                Pack    Unpack  Size
                                ----------------------
        STZIP("deflate best")   1:23    18      118763

        LHarc 2.01              2:06    33      120925

        LHarc 3.10              1:09    12      120901

Source files and the archive were both on a ramdisk and timings were
taken from clicking ok from the command line or the STZIP screen using a
desktop clock.

Many of the new switches are about naming files and seem intended to cope
with MiNT/ MultiTOS conventions. Some of the changes are drastic enough to
make it inadvisable to use existing shells. Version 3.10 junior corrects a
few bugs and adds some additional features. Anyway - use LHarc 3.10 and its
built in GEM-interface!

The remainder of the text is about using Version 2.01; variations for 2.20
and newer versions are appended at the end.

3.0 GETTING STARTED WITH VERSION 2.01

Documentation for this programme consists of a German manual (MAN.DEU) an
English manual (MAN.ENG), not as comprehensive as MAN.DEU, the README and
LIESMICH files containing installation instructions and the revision
history and LHarc.DOC, a brief introduction in German. There is also
ALGORITHM.DOC explaining the compression methods used.

Like many PD authors Thomas Quester asks that his programme should always
be distributed with documentation. He goes to greater lengths than most,
distributing LHarc as a packed programme (using PFXPAK) with the manuals
(MAN.DEU, or if you are very lucky MAN.ENG) appended in compressed form - a
combination of packed file and archive. PD libraries and Bulletin Boards
often break this up and distribute the files separately with or without the
manual. I have never knowingly seen this file though I have a much larger
one of the same kind which came with my registered version of PFXPAK.  If
your LHarc seems rather large it may be one of these compound files. It
runs in the normal way as an archiving programme, but will put on screen
the message:

LHarc beinhaltet noch einige Dateien.   Auspacken mit  x -rm LHarc.TTP
        or
LHarc k”nnte noch einige Dateien enthalten. Auspacken mit Paramter LHarc.TTP

        This means:

LHarc contains some files.              Unpack with   x -rm LHarc.TTP

meaning that the files can be unpacked, to the current directory, by giving
LHarc its own name as a parameter.

The LIESMICH or README file if you have it, contains instructions for
producing a smaller, working copy of the programme alone without this
message: however it is possible to delete the files still leaving the
message, so nothing can be taken for granted.

4.0 USING LHarc 2.01

LHarc is a ttp programme, presenting that daunting empty parameter box when
run from the desktop. It carries out one command at a time then exits. If
you make a mistake you have to type the command again; it keeps no history
of the commands given. No more than 38 characters may be typed on the
command line. Long chains of switches or extended path names quickly eat
this up.

If you want to make repeated use of the programme, it is worth copying it
to a ramdisk for faster operation, particularly if you have no hard drive:
this will also enable you to keep data and archive disks in the floppy
drive. It may be worthwhile creating the archive on ramdisk if yours is big
enough, particularly if you are carrying out repeated alterations resulting
in the archive being constantly updated.

If no parameters are passed it displays the following on pressing <return>:


LHarc Version 2.01l (Atari ST)  Copyright (c) Haruyasu Yoshizaki, 1988-89.
                                         Optimiert von Thomas Quester    1989-91
================================================================        03.07.91  ===
                <<< High-performance file-compression program >>>
===============================================================================
  Aufruf: LHarc  [<Kommando>] [{{/|-}{<Schalter>[-|+|2|<Option>]}}...] <archive>
                 [{<Laufwerk>:}|{<Hauptvezeichnis>\}] [<Pfad> ...]
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
<Kommando>
     a: Dateien an Archiv anfgen       u: Dateien im Archiv erneuern
     f: Dateien anfgen, wenn neuer     m: Datei in das Archiv 'moven'
     d: Dateien aus Archiv l”schen    e,x: Dateien aus Archiv extrahieren
     p: Dateien aus Archiv anzeigen   l,v: Dateiliste des Archivs
     t: Archiv testen                   c: Dateien fr AFX komprimieren
  <Schalter>
     r: Mit Ordnern packen/entpacken    w: Arbeitsdirectory bestimmen
     x: Erweitere Dateinamen            m: Beantworte alle Fragen mit Ja
     p: Unterscheide Ordnernamen        c: Kein Vergleich des Dateidatums
     a: Erlaube bel. Dateiattribute     v: Dateien mit anderem Prg ansehen
     n: Keinen Prozessindikator zeigen  h: Warte auf Tastendruck vor exit
     t: Archivdatum setzen              y: Nur dateien mit Archive bit packen
     b: Wie y, Archivbit wird gel”scht  l: Erzeuge Larc-kompatibles Archiv
     d: Unterdrcke ALLE Ausgaben       o: Erzeuge 1.13-kompatibles Archiv
     u: Ungepackt speichern             k: Erzeuge Kompatible Header
     e: Mit Kommentaren archivieren     5: Zwinge lh5-Archiv
     s: Wandle \ in / um
===============================================================================
  (Eine genaue Anleitung finden Sie im User-Manual.)
  Wenn Sie Yoschi erreichen wollen: Nifty-Serve  PFF00253
                                        oASCII-pcs       pcs02846
  Wenn Sie Thomas Quester  UUCP the.fawn@mcshh.hanse.de
  erreichen wollen:        Maus Thomas Quester @ HH
                           Tel./BTX (040) 720 54 31



The line:

Aufruf: LHarc  [<Kommando>] [{{/|-}{<Schalter>[-|+|2|<Option>]}}...] <archive>
                 [{<Laufwerk>:}|{<Hauptvezeichnis>\}] [<Pfad> ...]

is a concise summary of the syntax of the command line; in English it is
almost as cryptic:

Usage LHarc [<command>] [{{/|-}{<switch>[-|+|2|<option>]}}...] <archive_name>
                [{<drive_name>:}|{<home_directory_name>\}] [<path_name>  ...]

        LHarc used only from a command line or another programme;
                do not use when run from the desktop
        <>      parameter name
        []      optional parameter
        |       (shifted \) alternative
        {}

Parameters must be separated by spaces; the only essential parameter is the
archive name. LHarc will use default values for all the others. The order
must be as shown except that switches can be placed anywhere after the
command. LHarc is insensitive to case except in switches which must be
lower in version 2.01; 2.20 and newer versions use upper case switches as
well; it also insists on switches immediately following the command.

For clarity we shall call the files to be archived "source" files, lzh
files "archive" files, and the files in the archive "archived" files.

Hitting 'Ctrl-C' at any time will abort LHarc's current operation and
return you to the desktop. It may leave temporary files lying around if you
do so. 'Ctrl-S'and 'Ctrl-Q' will pause and resume operations, which is
useful for reading scrolled listings.

(#9.1), etc refers to changes in versions newer than 2.20 described in
section 9.0.

5.0     PARAMETER USAGE

5.1     <Command>:

A command tells LHarc what to do. It must be the first parameter given and
only one is allowed on each command line. If none is given, extraction,
"x",  is implied. If a command is placed other than at the beginning of the
line, LHarc will extract files, interpreting the command as some other
parameter, eg an archive called "a".

5.2     <Switch>:

Switches modify the action of commands or the way the LHarc runs. They are
identified by the delimiter "/" or "-" and may be placed anywhere except
before a command. (#9.1)

Some switches are automatically set by commands:
        the command "v" sets the switch "/x" for extended file names;
        or other switches - "/r" sets "/x3".

The switch letter is a toggle (#9.1) which reverses the current state.The
default is off but this may have been altered:

        1) by a previous switch in the same command line, whether
        written or implied by another switch or command,
        or
        2) by an environment variable set by a shell programme or cli.

Thus    /xx     sets and unsets extended filenames;
        /rx     sets LHarc to search folders then tells it not to use
                extended filenames

"+" or "-" following the switch set it unambiguously on or off; if in
doubt use these. Several switches may be selected by typing them
continously after the delimiter: eg /rhc. Otherwise type / before each
switch. /w and /v must be at the end of such sequences as they may take
further arguments.

5.3 SELECTION PARAMETERS

The remaining parameters concern identifying files and paths. LHarc will
look for a file in the current drive and directory unless its name is
preceded by a drive letter and/or path.  In GEM terms the current directory
is the active window on the desktop from which programmes are normally
launched.

[If you are using a command line interface this will be familiar; if you
are using an archive shell you will never be aware of it at all.]

You can run a programme from an inactive window using the right, or
cinderella, button:

        Open the programme window containing LHarc.
        Open the window you want to make current - most usefully the one
         where files will be read from or written to - making this the
         active window;
        Move the mouse to the programme window;
        Holding down the right button, double click with the left.

You may also specify a file not in the current directory by typing in the
drive and/or pathname on the command line:

 The conventions of MSDOS apply:

        D:              drive "D"
        \path\          path beginning at the root of the current or
                        specified drive
        path\           path starting from the current directory or
                        from the last used directory of the specified
                        drive.
Thus:
        D:arc           the archive "arc" in the last used directory
                        of drive D:
        \arc            the archive "arc" in the root directory of the
                        current drive
        path\arc        the archive "arc" in the subdirectory "path"
                        of the current window.


5.4     <ARCHIVE>:

This is the only essential parameter: given an archive name,
Lharc will unpack all the files in the named archive to the current
directory.

The parameter must include the archive name; the extender .lzh is implied
and need not be written unless the archive has some other extender or
has a single letter name which could be confused with a command. Self-
extracting files with .TOS extenders can be viewed or extracted if the
extender is given. Only one archive parameter is allowed and LHarc can,
naturally, write to only one archive at once, which must be given a full
name. However, LHarc will read or extract from multiple archives identified
by wildcards: eg "a*" means all lzh files beginning with "a" and "*" means
all archives in the current or specified directory.

          LHarc e * *.c

        Extracts all files with extension .C from all archives in
        the current directory.


The next two parameters, <DRIVE/HOME DIRECTORY> and <PATH> are both
concerned with the location and selection of files (not archives) to be
archived or read from archive. Without either parameter LHarc will read
files from and write them to the current directory and will select all
files as though *.* had been typed. The distinction between these parameters
can be confusing.

5.5     <DRIVE/HOME DIRECTORY>:

This parameter substitutes a new directory for reading and writing files in
place of the current one; it contains a drive letter followed by a colon
and/or a path specification ending with  \.  Leading "\"s follow the same
convention as described above. If the final ":" or "\" is omitted the
parameter will be read as <PATH>. The path defined here will not be
included in extended file names. (#9.3)

5.6 <PATH>:

This is a misleading name as there may be no path element at all; if
used at all the parameter must contain a filename or wildcard
specification, to identify the file(s) to be archived, listed or extracted.
A path specification is used:

1)      in archiving, to identify the directory where files are to be
        found: unlike the <home> parameter, the path will be included in
        extended filenames. If a drive name is specified it will override
        any path set in the <HOME> parameter, as will a leading \.  A file
        archived with a leading \ will be extracted to the root directory,
        regardless of any <home> setting, unless the /p switch is set.

2)      in reading archives, to identify the files to be selected.

If no file name or specifier is used after a '\' the parameter will be read
as <HOME>.  This and <switch> are the only parameters which can be repeated
on the same command line.

EXAMPLES: " ~ " = space

        a ~ path1\arc ~ a:path2\ ~ path3\*.prg ~ *.ttp ~ /hr

<command>       a               add to or create
<archive>       ~ path1\arc     archive "arc" in the subdirectory "path "
                                of the current window;
<home>          ~ a:path2\      look for files in the current directory of
                                drive A: ignore this path name in extended
                                filenames;
<path>          ~ path3\*.prg   archive all "prg" files in the
                                subdirectory "path" of the directory just
                                set;
<path>          ~ *.ttp         and all "ttp" files in the home directory;
<switch>        ~ /h            hold the screen on finishing (so you can
                                see the error message)
                  r             and search subdirectories in the specified
                                file path saving files with with extended
                                file names.


If the third space is omitted,

       a   ~ path1\arc ~ a:path2\path3\*.prg ~ *.ttp ~ /hr
  <command>  <archive>   <path>                <path>  <switch>

the third parameter becomes a <path>; the same *.prg files will
be selected but saved with a longer pathname: "path2\path3\*.prg". The
following parameter will now archive all ttp files on the current directory
- usually the one where LHarc is.

If you make "a:path2\" the active window, and run LHarc from another window
using the right mouse button, you can omit the <home> command saving some
space on the command line

        a ~ path1\arc ~ path3\*.prg ~ *.ttp ~ /hr
  <command>  <archive>  <path>        <path>  <switch>

Alternatively, with path2's window open, though not necessarily
active, provided LHarc.ttp is not on the same drive as path2, then:

        a ~ path1\arc ~ a:path3\*.prg ~ a:*.ttp ~ /hr
  <command> <archive>   <path>          <path>    <switch>

will direct LHarc to search path2\ of drive A: for source files, achieving
the same result. Note that the drive identifier a: has to be repeated in
both <path> parameters: it will not be stored with the file names.

6.0 COMMANDS

Having discussed the syntax of parameters we will now look at what the
commands and switches do.

Commands fall into several groups:

6.1  Input commands:

Compress files and store them in a named archive which will be created if
it cannot be found.  The extension lzh is assumed: if you specify a
different extension, LHarc will prompt you whether to use it with the
message
 "Extension of archive is not '.' Continue processing? [Y/N]".
Note that LHarc will not attempt to compress the named archive itself so it
does not matter if it is in the same path as the source files.

6.1.1   a       add

        adds files to the archive, overwriting existing files with the same
        (extended) name. No prompt is given before overwriting.

6.1.2   m       move

        as a but deletes the source files.

6.1.3   u       update

        adds files as a but overwrites only those with an earlier date.
        LHarc will declare what file names have been matched but, if none
        of the archived files have an earlier date, will exit without
        further action or warning.

6.1.4   f       freshen

        updates files already in an archive with newer versions.

6.1.5   c       compress

                compresses single files for unpacking by AFX

Source files may be specified by means of the <home> and <path> parameters.

Switches:          l,o,k,u,5  r,c,a,y,b,  x,e,t,w,      m,n,d,h

LHarc will normally use lh5 as a compression method; the following switches
select alternatives which you may use if you anticipate your archive being
read by other utilities:

                (commands: a|u|m|f )

6.1.10  /l      Makes Larc archives.

         This format, the same as PFXPAK uses, produce archives are longer
         by about 5% but extract much faster.

6.1.11  /o      Uses the lh1 algorithms; ("LHarc 1.13 compatible")

        For use with LHarc 1.13  and earlier versions of LHarc and with
        UNLZH and LHXARC.

6.1.12  /k      Compatible headers

        LHXarc and early versions of LHarc cannot extract files with the
        extended headers used by LHarc2.x. Using /ok you can make
        compatible headers. (#9.5/k)

6.1.13  /u      Archives files without compression:

         if you are adding packed programmes or other compressed files to
         an archive there is little to be gained by attempting further
         compression except that time will be taken in packing and
         unpacking. You can also add a short comment file to an archive
         which can be read by running the archive from the desktop or in a
         text editor.  (#9.5/U)

6.1.14  /5      Forces compression by lh5

        LHarc will normally not attempt to compress already packed files
        (see switch /U). This switch tells LHarc to try to compress any
        files. This will slow down LHarc but the compression-ratio will be
        better.

These switches affect the selection of files to be archived:

6.1.20  /r[-|+|2] (Recursively collect files)   (commands: a|u|m|f)

        by default LHarc compresses the files in the directory identified
        by the <home> or <path> parameters, or failing that the current
        directory; it does not look for files in subdirectories.

        The /r switch instructs it to search subdirectories

        a|u|f|m] /r[+] ARCHIVE

        Adds to 'ARCHIVE' all files in the current directory and its
        subdirectories.

        a|u|f|m] /r[+] ARCHIVE *.c

        Adds to 'ARCHIVE' all files in the current directory and its
        subdirectories with a 'c' extender.

        a|u|f|m] /r[+] ARCHIVE doc\*.*

        Adds to 'ARCHIVE' all files in the directory doc and its
        subdirectories. The same can be achieved without filenames or
        wildcards in the pathname doc by:

        a|u|f|m] /r2 ARCHIVE doc

        See (9.5/r)

The /r and /r2 switches set the /x switch simultaneously, so that in all
these examples extended file names will be stored, starting at the
beginning of <path>. You may toggle the /x switch off (with /x-) after
using /r to tell LHarc not to store directory names. If LHarc then finds
source files of the same name it will overwrite previously archived files,
after comparing their date stamps if commands u,f are in use.

You can use the /r switch to archive files with the same file name by
recursively searching directories.  Thus, with the directory shown below

                        |
                       -\-
                        |
                       -TC-STAT.H
                        |
                -----------------
                -BIN- -LIB  -INCLUDE
                  |     |       |
                              -SYS-
                                |
                             -STAT.H

          LHarc a /r ARCHIVE stat.h

adds two 'stat.h' files, with path names, to 'ARCHIVE': one from the root
directory and the other from the directory \tc\include\sys\.

See 6.1.30 for /x.

6.1.21  /c[-|+] (skip time-stamp Comparison)    (commands: e|x|u|f).

        overrides the time stamp comparison in u and f.


6.1.22  /a[-|+] (allow any Attribute of files)  (commands: e|x|u|f).

        This switch tells LHarc to archive/extract files with the
        hidden or system attribute which it would otherwise ignore.

6.1.23  /y      (Archive bit)                   (commands: a|u|m|f)

        Only select files with the archive bit set. The archive bit is set
        whenever a file is created or modified. Some back up utilities and
        the /b switch "unset" it so unchanged files can be identified at
        the next back-up.

        a -ry *.*

        Will archive all files that have been changed since their archive
        bit was unset.

6.1.24  /b                                      (commands: a|u|m|f)

        Like y, but the archive bit of the source file is reset.

        If you archive a file using this switch, then attempt to repeat the
        process with this or the /y switch no files will be found.


These switches govern the information stored with the archived files:

6.1.30  /x[-|+] (allow eXtended file names)    (commands: a|u|m|f|e|x)

        By default, LHarc stores the file names of source files without the
        names of the directory(s) in which they reside.  This switch tells
        LHarc to include directory names and to extract archived files
        together with stored directory names, creating the necessary
        folders. (#9.5/x)

        Example: Suppose you are in the root directory, '\' and you have
        two files 'stat.h' and '\tc\include\sys\stat.h':

          LHarc a ARCHIVE stat.h

        Adds only the file 'stat.h' from the current (root) directory to
        'ARCHIVE', but

          LHarc a ARCHIVE stat.h \tc\include\sys\stat.h

        Will cause LHarc to abort with the message "Same names in
        another path", because directory names are normally disregarded
        when storing file names.  However,

          LHarc a /x ARCHIVE stat.h \tc\include\sys\stat.h

        Adds both files to 'ARCHIVE'. Then,

          LHarc e ARCHIVE stat.h

        Extracts both 'stat.h' files to the current directory and compares
        their time stamps and if one is newer, then LHarc will prompt you
        with the message "'STAT.H': Already exists. Overwrite? [Y/N]".

          LHarc e /x ARCHIVE stat.h

        Extracts both 'stat.h' files; one to the current directory and the
        other to the directory \tc\include\sys\. If this directory does
        not exist, then LHarc will prompt you whether to create it.

6.1.31  /e[-|+] (comment)                       (commands: a|u|m|f)

        Adds a comment to the archived which will be displayed by the v or
        l /x commands. (#9.5/z)

6.1.32  /t[-|+] (Time Stamp)                    (commands: a|u|m|f)

        The archive file is normally given the time and date of its
        creation. This switch sets the time stamp of the archive to that of
        the newest file in the archive.

         a /t ARCHIVE file1.ext


6.1.33  /w[-|+|<directory_name>] (Working directory) (commands: a|u|m|f)

        When  modifying an existing archive LHarc creates temporary files
        in the same directory as the archive, deleting them afterwards.
        (See 7.0) Using the /w switch:

        a /wd:\temp ARCHIVE file1.ext file2.ext ...

        creates these files in the directory \temp\ on drive D:.  If no
        directory name is specified, temporary files will be created in the
        current directory.

        Specifying a ramdisk with this switch can speed up operations
        considerably; it is also useful when you have no room on the disk
        where the archive is.

        This switch overrides any working directory specified in an
        environment variable (see 8.0)


6.2 Output commands:

Expand files from a named archive recreating them on disk: archived files
may be specified using the <path> parameter and the destination for
extracted files by the <home> parameter. If files of the same name are
found LHarc will prompt "Overwrite? [Y/N]". Version l gives the option to
rename.  The contents of self-extracting files with .TOS extenders can be
extracted if the tos extender is included in the archive name.

6.2.1   e,x extract:

Switches:          x,p,c,l,u,  m,n,d,h

6.2.10  /x[-|+] (allow eXtended file names)    (commands: a|u|m|f|e|x)

        See above (6.1) for this switch

        Running LHarc with no command is equivalent to:

        e (or x) /x

        if you don't want files extracted to directories use /x- (or /x as
        it is a toggle) with no command or use the x or e command.

6.2.11  /p[-|+] (distinguish full Path names) (commands: e|x)

        When extracting LHarc will search for the specified files
        regardless of extended filenames. This switch tells LHarc to
        distinguish files by full path name during un-archiving. (#9.5/p)

        Example: Suppose your archive 'tc' contains both 'stat.h' and
        'sys\stat.h'.   Then,

          LHarc e tc stat.h

        Extracts both 'stat.h' files to the current directory and the older
        one will be overwritten by the newer one, whereas

          LHarc e /p tc stat.h

        Extracts only 'stat.h' to the current directory and ignores
        'sys\stat.h', because its path name is not specified.

        If you specify a path names without the /p switch, LHarc will
        extract only those files from your archive, but it will otherwise
        disregard stored directory names.  (If you want to extend file
        names with directory names, use the /x switch.)

          e tc sys\stat.h

        Extracts only 'sys\stat.h' to the current directory.


6.2.12  /c[-|+] (skip time-stamp Comparison)    (commands: e|x|u|f).

        /c ARCHIVE [file1.ext file2.ext ...]

        When extracting if LHarc finds an existing file with the same name
        in the destination directory it will compare the time stamp of
        the two files, and so some files will be overwritten and some just
        ignored. This switch tells LHarc to overwrite any existing files
        with extracted ones with the same name.


Two switches are concerned with reading Lzh archives from Unix sources

6.2.20  /s      Convert / to \                          (commands: e|x)

        Unix uses / as a directory delimiter instead of /. This switch
        converts / to \ enabling Unix directory paths within extended
        filenames to be interpreted in the ST environment.

6.2.21  /u      Extract Unix 1.0 archives               (commands: e|x)

        Used when extracting, this switch jumps over the header-checksum-
        test, so that archives from Unix 1.0 can be extracted. (Unix
        permits longer filenames than MS/GEMDOS.) Use when 'No files' shows
        up during extraction. (Should also be able to extract archives with
        comments). (#9.5/C)

        More recent versions of LHarc cope with Unix type filenames by
        truncating them and also support comments, so this switch may be
        redundant, but it is worth remembering if you have trouble or are
        using an older version of LHarc (<2.00).


6.3 Internal commands

Work on archived files in a named archive; files within the archive may be
specified using the <path> parameter

Switches:          x,v(p only),  n,d,h

d delete

        deletes named archived files which must be identified by the <path>
        parameter; this command will not delete a whole archive by default,
        though it will with *.*. No prompts are given.


6.3.1   l (List files in archive)

          LHarc l ARCHIVE

        Lists the files in 'ARCHIVE' including name, original size, stored
        size, compression ratio, date and time, attributes, compression
        type and CRC check using one line to each file. A '+' before a file
        name indicates that a directory name is stored with the file name.
        (The /x switch or v command display directory names.)

        The path parameter will filter the files to be listed

          LHarc l ARCHIVE *.c *.h readme.doc

        Lists information on all the .C, .H and README.DOC files
        in 'ARCHIVE'.

6.3.2   v (View list of files in archive)

          LHarc v ARCHIVE

        is equivalent to:

          LHarc l /x ARCHIVE

        Lists information as l but each file takes two lines: the first for
        the full path name and the second for the rest of the information,
        including comments.

6.3.3   t (Test integrity of archive)

          LHarc t ARCHIVE

        Tests the integrity of 'ARCHIVE' by running a CRC check on each
        file and comparing the result against the file's stored CRC value.

6.3.4   p show file

        displays on screen the contents of files specified
        by means of the <path> parameter.

6.3.40  /v[-|+|2|<path\utility.ext>] (View file by another utility)

        LHarc creates an un-archived file 'LHarc.TMP' and displays it using
        the specified utility, usually a text editor or file viewer. You
        must give the full name of the utility with the extension, though
        you may use wildcards such as r*.* to invoke "read.prg" If no
        utility is specified the default is one called "less.ttp". You may
        rename your favourite file viewer accordingly. 'LHarc.TMP' is
        deleted after you have viewed it. The benefit of this is that you
        can use all the features of the utility to scroll through the text,
        save, print, search, etc.
        (#9.5/v)

        LHarc p /vread.prg ARCHIVE.LZH file1.ext

        Invokes READ.PRG for paged display of 'file1.ext' to the screen,

        LHarc p /v2 /vread.prg ARCHIVE.LZH file1.ext

        as before but /v2 suppresses the output of file names or path
        names.  This option is provided for viewing binary files with a
        dump utility.

Output from l,v and p , including LHarc's own messages, may be redirected
to a file by >"filename", to the printer (parallel port) by >prn: and to
the serial port by >aux:  The final colon is essential, otherwise LHarc
will direct output to a file called "prn". Using /d will suppress
LHarc's messages but not the filename. (#9.4)

You may also append to a file using >>, but the process is so slow I
recommend you only use this if you are about to take a holiday. If you use
MORTIMER's print spooler you can achieve the same effect by directing
output to prn: or aux: with the printer off-line, and then retrieving the
contents of the spooler into the editor using 'Ctrl-X'.

The screen display with these commands may be paused by 'Ctrl-S' and
resumed with 'Ctrl-Q'.


6.4 The following switches apply to most commands:

6.4.1   /m[-|+] (no Message for query)

        [<command>] /m ARCHIVE [file1.ext file2.ext ...]

        Before altering files or directories, or before creating
        an archive with a extension other than LZH, LHarc will query you
        with messages like "Overwrite? [Y/N]". This switch suppresses these
        messages and tells LHarc to proceed as if "y" is typed in.

6.4.2   /n[-|+] (No Indicator)

        Suppress progress display ****... when archiving and de-archiving.
        This display is on even when output is redirected to printer or
        file.

6.4.3   /d[-|+] (suppress screen display)
                         (#9.5/q- do not use with version 2.20 or newer!)
        LHarc will write nothing to the screen while working.

6.4.4   /h[-/+] (hold screen)

        With /h LHarc waits for a key before returning to desktop
        enabling messages to be read.

6.4.5   /q      Quick compression

        Not currently supported

There is also an as yet unimplemented command s to create self extracting
archives. (Use the shell or 'MAKE_SFX` to create self-extracting archives)

7.0 TEMPORARY FILES

When creating or amending an archive LHarc creates temporary files in the
same directory as the archive, unless told by means of the /w switch to
write them elsewhere. These are:

        LHarc.)1(       Original archive, renamed.
        LHarc.)2(       Work file used to create new archive.

        If a file with one of these file names already exists in the working
        directory, then the behaviour of LHarc is unpredictable.

If the process is aborted by 'Ctrl-C' or through an error the original file
can usually be recovered by renaming LHarc.)1(.    LHarc.)2( may also
be usable though the last file written to it is likely to be incomplete.

        LHarc.TMP       Work file created for viewing by another utility.

8.0 SHELLS AND COMMAND LINE INTERFACES

Shells make using LHarc easier by allowing choices to be set up from a
menu though they may not enable all the facilities of LHarc to be used and
may become out of date as LHarc itself is amended. ARCshell 3.1 gives good
support to LHarc but is itself quite daunting to understand as a result.
Other shells give more limited support.

Command line interfaces allow LHarc to be called from their command line
and may allow the use of batch files or the recall of commands by
scrolling back through the command list.

You may also set LHarc's default switches with the environment variable
'LHarc':

          SET LHarc=/we: /r

        will set drive E: as the working directory and archive all
        files in recursive mode.

You may also specify LHarc's working directory with the environment
variable 'TMP':

          SET TMP=E:

        but the /w switch will override this setting.

        Result Codes

        LHarc returns the following result codes to the parent process:

        0   Normally finished.

        1   Process finished with nonexistent file names ignored
        during archiving or CRC error occurred during
        un-archiving.

        2   Process terminated by fatal error; no archive created
        or files moved.

        3   Unable to write temporary files into the archive. Work
        file renamed to 'LHarc.)2(' and original archive
        deleted.  Try renaming LHarc.)2( as your archive,
        although it might be damaged.



9.0 VERSION 2.20 and newer versions

The help screen, displayed by pressing <return> at the command line is as
below:
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------


   LHarc Version 3.10 junior (Atari) - dedicated to an unknown genius
   (c) Haruyasu Yoshizaki, 1988-1989, Grunenberg, Mandel, 1994
 ================================================================ May 1994 ====
 Syntax: LHarc [<command>] [{{-|/}{<switchs>[-|+|0-3|<options>]}}...] <archive>
         [{<Drive>:[\]}|{<Base-Directory>\}] {[&|&-|~] <Paths/Files> ...}
 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  <Command>
      a: Add files to archive           u: Update newer files to archive
    f,r: Freshen/Re-construct archive   m: Move files to archive (means 'a -d')
      d: Delete files from archive    e,x: Extract files from archive
      p: DisPlay files on screen      l,v: List/Verbose list of archive
      t: Test integrity of archive      c: Compress files in AFX-format
 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  <Switchs> (WARNING: The meaning of the d-switch has been completely changed)
      r: Recursive expansion of dirs    w: Specify work-directory
      x: Extend filenames               m: No Message at query
      p: Distinguish pathnames          f: Include folders in archive
      c: Skip time-comparison           i: Ignore attributes
      a: Any attribute                  v: Display with external tool
      n: Set process-indicator          h: Hold screen after finishing
      t: Time-stamp of archive          y: Only files with 'changed' attribute
      b: Clear 'Changed'-attribute      l: Use Larc compatible method
      q: Suppress all messages (quiet)  o: Use LHarc 1.13 compatible method
      u: Store - don't compress files   k: Header-level (0-2)
      e: Include file-comments          z: Include archive-comment
      d: Delete files after command     C: No crc-check during extraction
      g: Extract archive in folder      j: Exclude empty files
      5: Force LHarc 2.0x archive (lh5) 4: Store in Larc compatible method
      s: Convert backslashs to slashs   P: Process-Indicator-Character
      L: Limit memory-allocations       S: Case-Sensitive filenames
      M: Maximum file-size              N: Only files newer than date ddmmyy
      U: Store files uncompressed       R: Rename Unix-Files
      I: Compress files to directory    B: Retain backup copy of archive
      A: Add if file is not in archive  D: Delete if file is not specified
      W: No wildcard-matching           X: Make relativ pathnames
      Y: Encryption                     K: Acoustic signal after finishing
      ?: Display helpscreen
  path;\ Make relativ pathnames        ~,! Exclude files
     &,@ Get file-list from file     &-,@- Get file-list from standard input
 ==============================================================================
  (You'll find a more detailed description in the documentation 'MANUAL.ENG')

  Yoshizaki  : Nifty-Serve  PFF00253
               oASCII-pcs   pcs02846
  Grunenberg : Christian Grunenberg @ S2 (Mausnet)
               Christian_Grunenberg@S2.maus.de (Inter-/Usenet)

 LHarc is a freeware-program. Freeware means that you can freely copy, test
 and use this programm. If you are using LHarc regularly, you should support
 the further development by sending me a suitable donation (a cheque or a postal
 money order about DM 25,- or $15). Thanx.

  Address:
 ----------
  Christian Grunenberg
  Traminerweg 5
  71717 Beilstein
  Germany

  Important:
 ------------
  Use this program at your own RISK! I do not provide any warranty about it!


-------------------------------------------------------------------------
The principal differences from older versions are as follows:

9.1 Switches must come after the command before any name or path
    parameters.
    "0" and "1" usually have the same effect as "+" and "-".
    Without any of these characters the switch is turned on, no longer
    toggled.

9.2 Unix wildcards may be used; as well as * and ?,

       [a-m] sets a range:
                [a-m]*.* selects all files with names with initial letters
                between a and m
       [a|m] or [am] sets a choice:
                [a|m]*.* selects all files with initial letters a or m.
                [am]*.* does the same and
                [a-mv]*.* selects all files with names with initial letters
                between a and m and those beginning with v
        [^a] excludes:
                [^a-m]*.* selects all files with names with initial letters
                NOT between a and m.
        As an alternative you can use ! or ~ to exclude files thus:
                !*.ttp,[am]*.* excludes all .ttp files and all files
                beginning with a or m

In most circumstances file/path names and wild cards may be chained
together with commas ie:

        "folder\*.ttp,*.prg"

selects all files with ttp and prg extenders in "folder" and has the same
effect as

        "folder\*.ttp folder\*.prg"

9.3 <home> no longer works in input commands; files for archiving can only
be set by the <path> parameter. If extended filenames are set by the /x or
/r switches the whole path will be stored.  The new /I switch can be used
to force all files into a single directory with subdirectory names.

To store subdirectories relative to, ie starting from the end of the path
specified, for which the <home> parameter would have been used as in:

        a ~ /hr ~ path1\arc ~ a:path2\ ~ path3\*.prg

you may open the window a:path2\ and add the drive name 'a:' to the <path>
parameter as described in section 5.6:

        a ~ /hr ~ path1\arc ~ a:path3\*.prg

or use the right button to launch LHarc from an inactive window.

Alternatively, from version 2.22 on, the switch /X (store relative to
the given paths) suppresses the path name from the archive, while storing
subdirectory names

        a ~ /hrX ~ path1\arc ~ a:path3\*.prg

or inserting a ';' in the path suppresses the part of the path before the
semi-colon, ie

    a ~ /hr ~ path1\arc ~ e:\path2\folder1;\folder2\
                          ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
                          | This part of the path won't be stored !

9.4 Redirection: '>>' is now officially supported as well as '>'.
Indirection using '<' to read instructions from a file is not yet
implemented, but using '@' or '&' allows a list of files to be read in so
the command line

    v /h arc  &comm

will view the archive "arc" listing only the files named in the file "comm".
Final colons are no longer needed ">prn" and ">aux" will now work.

9.5 switches - only changes from 2.01 are described

/r[-|+|2]       r2 is now acknowledged to be redundant; it will do the same
                as /r.

/f[-|+|2|3]     includes folders in archives as files, not just as part of
                extended file names, apparently for Unix compatibility.

                Version 2.22 or newer:
                /f2 Wildcard-Matching also when including folders.
                /f3 as /f2, but only compress folders.

/g[-|+]         creates a folder with the archive name and writes output
                files to it (as UNLZH does)

/x[-|+|2|3]     the new options 2,3 force initial backslashes,
                representing the root directory, on and off respectively

/p[-|+]         as before

/I(dir\)        Stores all archived files with the extended name
                'dir\filepath\file.ext'. This switch sets /x3.
                Setting the switch /x0 will stripp the original filepath.

/n[-|+|2|3]     Process indicators s before
                /n2 shows progress a % instead of a row of *
                /n3 shows a rotating /

/q[-|+|2]       use this instead of /d to suppress all screen output;

                Version 2.22 or newer:
                /q2 only suppresses the title output.
                see /d below

/d[-|+]         deletes existing files (like the m command) but also
                deletes them from archives when extracting

/D[-|+]         Version 2.32 or newer:
                Will delete all files in the archive not specified by
                the user or found by LHarc.

/A[-|+]         Will only add a file if the file is not already in the
                archive.

/e[-|+]         As before

/z[-|+]<file>   Like /e, but the comment relates to the archive as a whole
                not to individual files.

                Version 2.22 or newer:
                If <file> is specified, the comment is read from <file>,
                not from standard input.

/m[-|+|2|3]     Version 2.22 or newer:
                /m2 suppresses only the message 'Create folder ?'
                /m3 suppresses only the message 'Overwrite file ?'

/Y<key>         Version 2.3:
                Encrypts files during compression using <key> as a pass-
                word and decrypts files during extraction.

/t
/w              All as before
/c

/C[-|+]         Omits the checksum test when extracting, speeding up the
                process and allowing corrupt files to be expanded.

/v[-|+|2|3]<file>
                Less.ttp is no longer taken as a default; you must write
                something like "/vd:\view.ttp". /v2 suppresses archive
                and file names from the output and /v3 acts like /qv2
                suppressing all screen output but the file contents
                themselves. As before a separate switch /v2,3 is needed for
                these options, following the first one.

/h              As before

/N<ddmmyy>      Only selects files later than the date ddmmyy.

/i[-|+|2|3]     Extracts files, ignoring all attributes and with the
                current date and time.

                Version 2.22 or newer:
                /i2 only current date and time.
                /i3 ignoring all attributes.

/y              As before

/b              Resets only the changed-attribute

/B              Retains a back-up copy of an amended archive with the
                extender.bak, overwriting any previous .bak file with the
                same name. Works with input commands and when the /d switch
                is set.

/l[-|+|2]       Version 2.3
                /l2 force Larc (lh0) compression even if the archive will
                get longer (disables /U)

/o[-|+|2]       Version 2.3
                /o2 force LHarc (lh1) compression even if the archive will
                get longer (disables /U)

/5[-|+|2]       Forces lh5 mode on all files including small files as
                before and also archive files which would otherwise be
                stored without compression (see /u). Creates smallest archives
                possible.

                Version 2.3
                /52 force LHA (lh5) compression even if the archive will
                get longer (disables /U)

/W[-|+]         No wildcard-matching except to exclude files and with
                switch /U (Version 2.22 or newer)

                Version 2.32
                /W2 disable multiple files like 'file1.ext,file2.ext'

/X[-|+]         Store paths relative to specified paths (see 9.3.)
                (Version 2.22 or newer)

/K[0-3]         Acoustic signal after finishing (up to 3 seconds)
                (Version 2.22 or newer)

/k[0-2]         Allows the type of header to be set:
                ie levels
                /k0 or /k:      (compatible as with the old /k), /e and /z
                                are disabled
                /k1:            (standard)
                /k2             (extended)

/u              As before but versions newer than 2.20 will not by default
                compress archive files with the extenders
                ARC/ARJ/LZH/LZS/LHA/TAZ/ZOO/ZIP/TGZ/GZ/GIF/JPG/HPK

/U[-|+]<filespec(s)>
                Allows only specific file(types) identified by wildcards to
                be saved without compression, others are compressed.

                Multiple specifications can be chained using commas:

                        /U*.arc,*.lzh,readme

                This switch is meaningless with /5,/Y,/52,/l2 and /o2

/4[-|+]         saves without packing but in Larc compatible format. (lz4)

/P<chars>       Allows the process indicators * and . to be changed.

/L[0-2]         Limits the memory used by LHarc, mainly for multi-tasking.
                /L0 - use 50% of available memory (max. 900 KByte)
                /L1 - use only about 250-450 KByte memory
                /L2 - use all memory available (max. 2 MByte)

/M<size>        Sets a limit to the size of file to be archived or extracted

/S[-|+|2]       Allows LHarc to distinguish always between upper and lower
                case filenames

                Version 2.22 or newer:
                /S2 - no case-sensitivity

/R              LHarc converts Unix filenames automatically: this option
                allows the user to override LHarc's proposals.

/j              ignores empty files


9.6 New environment-variables

TMPDIR      same as TMP

UNPACKED    same as switch /U

COLUMNS     number of columns the screen is able to display

LHARCPAR    if set, all arguments are printed before executing the command
            (Version 2.22 or newer)

ARCTEMP     same as TMP (Version 2.3 or newer)

LHA         same as LHARC (Version 2.3 or newer)

LHARCDIR    same as parameter 'DRIVE/HOME-DIRECTORY' (see 5.5)
            (Version 2.31 or newer)


9.7 Return-Codes (Version 2.22 or newer)

    Bit 0  (1)    - Bad Table
    Bit 1  (2)    - CRC Error
    Bit 2  (4)    - Write-Error
    Bit 3  (8)    - Read-Error
    Bit 4  (16)   - Can't rename file or create folder
    Bit 5  (32)   - Can't copy/create temp. archive
    Bit 6  (64)   - Not implemented command
    Bit 7  (128)  - No LHarc-archive/no archivname
    Bit 8  (256)  - File not found/No file specified
    Bit 9  (512)  - Not enough memory

    Version 2.31 or newer:
    Bit 10 (1024) - Garbage found and skipped
    Bit 11 (2048) - Garbage found at the archive-end


9.8 Temporary files

LHA)(T)(.XXX    original archive and work files
__temp__.lzs    workfile during AFX compression (Version 2.22 or newer)


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS: the material for this document was obtained and in some
cases quoted from Theo Runia's MAN.ENG and Thomas Quester's MAN.DEU and
related sources with additional material for versions newer than 2.20 from
Christian Grunenberg.

If you have any comments or corrections please contact:

Alan Kennedy 107 Fernside Road London SW12 8LH

½ Alan Kennedy  12/08/93

This document may be freely distributed on disk but may not be published in
printed form without the author's permission.


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