MICROEMACS

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@comment(This manual is normally generated using Mark of the Unicorn's
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and will form the basis of a shareware text formatter I hope, but not
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		@big(@b[MicroEMACS])

		Full Screen Text Editor
		Reference Manual @i(- Preliminary Version)

		Version 3.12
		April 22, 1993

		(C)Copyright 1988 - 1993 by Daniel M. Lawrence
		Reference Manual (C)opyright 1988 - 1993
			by Brian Straight and Daniel M. Lawrence
		All Rights Reserved

		@i[(C)Copyright 1988 - 1993 by Daniel M. Lawrence
		MicroEMACS 3.12 can be copied and distributed freely for any
		non-commercial purposes. Commercial users may use MicroEMACS
		3.12 inhouse. Shareware distributors may redistribute
		MicroEMACS 3.12 for media costs only. MicroEMACS 3.12 can only
		be incorporated into commercial software or resold with the
		permission of the current author.]
@newpage
@flushleft(@big[Introduction])

	MicroEMACS is a tool for creating and changing documents,
programs, and other text files. It is both relatively easy for the
novice to use, but also very powerful in the hands of an expert.
MicroEMACS can be extensively customized for the needs of the individual
user.

	MicroEMACS allows several files to be edited at the same time.
The screen can be split into different windows and screens, and text may
be moved freely from one window on any screen to the next. Depending on
the type of file being edited, MicroEMACS can change how it behaves to
make editing simple. Editing standard text files, program files and
word processing documents are all possible at the same time.

	There are extensive capabilities to make word processing and
editing easier. These include commands for string searching and
replacing, paragraph reformatting and deleting, automatic word wrapping,
word move and deletes, easy case controlling, and automatic word counts.

	For complex and repetitive editing tasks editing macroes can be
written. These macroes allow the user a great degree of flexibility in
determining how MicroEMACS behaves. Also, any and all the commands can
be used by any keystroke by changing, or rebinding, what commands
various keys invoke.

	Special features are also available to perform a diverse set of
operations such as file encryption, automatic backup file generation,
entabbing and detabbing lines, executing operating system commands and
filtering of text through other programs (like SORT to allow sorting
text).

@flushleft(@big[History])

	EMACS was originally a text editor written by Richard Stallman
at MIT in the early 1970s for Digital Equipment computers. Various
versions, rewrites and clones have made an appearance since.

	This version of MicroEMACS is derived from code written by Dave
G. Conroy in 1985. Later modifications were performed by Steve Wilhite
and George Jones. In December of 1985 Daniel Lawrence picked up the then
current source (version 2.0) and made extensive modifications and
additions to it over the course of the next eight years. Updates and
support for the current version are still available. Commercial support
and usage and resale licences are also available. The current program
author can be contacted by writing to:

@begin(verbatim)
	USMAIL: Daniel Lawrence
		617 New York St
		Lafayette, IN 47901

	UUCP:	pur-ee!mdbs!dan
	ARPA:	mdbs!dan@@ee.ecn.purdue.edu

	Support is provided through:

	The Programmer's Room
	Opus 201/10
	300/1200/2400 and 9600 (Hayes V series only)
	(317) 742-5533	no parity  8 databits  no stop bits
@end(verbatim)
@newpage
@flushleft(@big[Credits])

	Many people have been involved in creating this software and we
wish to credit some of them here. Dave Conroy, of course, wrote the very
first version of MicroEMACS, and it is a credit to his clean coding that
so much work was able to be done to expand it. John Gamble is
responsible for writing the MAGIC mode search routines, and for
maintaining all the search code. Jeff Lomicka wrote the appendix on DEC
VMS and has supplied a lot of code to support VMS and the ATARI 1040ST
versions. Curtis Smith wrote the original VMS code and help support the
Commodore AMIGA. Also Lance Jones has done a lot of work on the AMIGA
code. Professor Suresh Konda at Carnegie Mellon University has put a lot
of effort into writing complex macroes and finding all the bugs in the
macro language before anyone else does.

	A special thanks to Dana Hoggatt who has provided an almost
daily sounding board for ideas, algorythms and code. He is responsible
for the encryption code directly and has prodded me into adding many
features with simple but poignant questions (Dan? How do we move the
upper left corner of the screen? . . . which forced me to write the text
windowing system).

	Pierre Perrot dealt with my restrictive path to a generalized
windowing version, and produced an excellent version for MicroSoft
Windows. He continues to assist with this environment, forcing me to
keep pace with him, making all the version more interesting.

	As to people sending source code and text translations over
computer networks like USENET and ARPA net, there are simply more than
can be listed here. [The comments in the edit history in the history.c
file mention each and the piece they contributed]. All these people
should be thanked for the hard work they have put into MicroEMACS.

@closing(Daniel M. Lawrence)
@newpage
@string(ChapterTitle="")
@set(page = 0)
@pageheading(odd, left "@title[Chapter]", right "MicroEMACS Reference Manual")
@pageheading(even, left "MicroEMACS Reference Manual", right "@title[Chapter]")
@pagefooting(odd, left="@value(page)")
@pagefooting(even, right="@value(page)")
@chapter(Installation)
	MicroEMACS is a programmer's text editor which is very
powerfull, customizable, and exists for a large number of different
types of computer systems. It is particularly usefull for people who
work on a lot of different computers and want to have a familiar and
powerful editor which works identically no matter what computer they are
using. But before using MicroEMACS, you must INSTALL it on your computer
system. Since each computer is different, there is usually a different
way to install MicroEMACS for each type of computer.

@section(MSDOS - IBM-PCs)
@section(UNIX)
@section(ATARI ST)

@chapter(Basic Concepts)

	The current version of MicroEMACS is 3.12 (Third major re-write,
twelveth public release), and for the rest of this document, we shall
simply refer to this version as "EMACS". Any modifications for later
versions will be in the file README on the MicroEMACS distribution disk.

@section(Keys and the Keyboard)

	Many times throughout this manual we will be talking about
@index(special keys) commands and the keys on the keyboard needed to use
them. There are a number of "special" keys which can be used and are
listed here:

@begin(description)
<NL>@\NewLine which is also called RETURN, ENTER, or <NL>, this key is
used to @index(newline) end different commands. 

^@\The control key can be used before any alphabetic character and some
symbols. For example, ^C means to hold down the <CONTROL> key and type
@index(control key) the C key at the same time. 

^X@\The CONTROL-X key is used at the beginning of many different
@index(control-x) commands. 

META or M-@\This is a special EMACS key used to begin many commands.
@index(meta key)This key is pressed and then released before
typing the next character. On most systems, this is the <ESC> key, but
it can be changed. (consult appendix E to learn what key is used for
META on your computer).
@end(description)

Whenever a command is described, the manual will list the actual
keystrokes needed to execute it in @b(boldface) using the above
conventions, and also the name of the command in @i(italics).
@section(Getting Started)

	In order to use EMACS, you must call it up from your system or
computer's command prompt. On UNIX and MSDOS machines, just type "emacs"
from the command prompt and follow it with the <RETURN> or <ENTER> key
(we will refer to this key as <NL> for "new-line" for the remainder of
this manual). On the Macintosh, the Amiga, the ATARI ST, and under OS/2
and other icon based operating systems, double click on the uEMACS icon.
Shortly after this, a screen similar to the one below should appear.

@section(Parts and Pieces)

	The screen is divided into a number of areas or @b<windows>. On
some systems the top window contains a function list of unshifted and
@index(windows) shifted function keys. We will discuss these keys later. 
@index(mode line) Below them is an EMACS @b<mode line> which, as we will
see, informs you of the present mode of operation of the editor--for
example "(WRAP)" if you set EMACS to wrap at the end of each line. 
@index(text window) Under the mode line is the @b<text window> where text
appears and is manipulated. Since each window has its own mode line,
below the text window is it's mode line. The last line of the screen is
the @b(command line) where EMACS takes commands and reports on what it
is doing. 

@begin(verbatim)
===============================================================================
f1 search-> f2 <-search |    MicroEMACS:  Text Editor
f3 hunt->   f4 <-hunt	| 
f5 fkeys    f6 help	|  Available function key Pages include:
f7 nxt wind f8 pg[    ] |    WORD  BOX	EMACS  PASCAL  C  cObal  Lisp
f9 save     f10 exit	|  [use the f8 key to load Pages]
===============================================================================
   MicroEMACS 3.12 ()	   Function Keys
===============================================================================











===============================================================================
---- MicroEMACS 3.12 () -- Main -----------------------------------------------
===============================================================================
		Fig 1:	EMACS screen on an IBM-PC
@end(verbatim)

@section(Entering Text)

Entering text in EMACS is simple. Type the following sentence fragment:

@quotation<Fang Rock lighthouse, center of a series of mysterious and>

@flushleft(The text is displayed at the top of the text window. Now type:)

@quotation<terrifying events at the turn of the century>

Notice that some of your text has dissapeared off the left side of the
screen. Don't panic--your text is safe!!! You've just discovered that
EMACS doesn't "wrap" text to the next line like most word processors
unless you hit <NL>. But since EMACS is used for both word processing,
and text editing, it has a bit of a dual personality. You can change
@index(modes) the way it works by setting various @b(modes). In this
case, you need to set @b(WRAP) mode, using the @i(add-mode)
@index(add-mode) command, by typing @b(^XM). The command line at the
base of the screen will prompt you for the mode you wish to add. Type
@b<wrap> followed by the <NL> key and any text you now enter will be
wrapped. However, the command doesn't wrap text already entered. To
get rid of the long line, press and hold down the <BACKSPACE> key until
the line is gone. Now type in the words you deleted, watch how EMACS
goes down to the next line at the right time. @i{(In some versions of
EMACS, @b<WRAP> is a default mode in which case you don't have to worry
about the instructions relating to adding this mode.)}

Now let's type a longer insert. Hit <NL> a couple of times to tab
down from the text you just entered. Now type the following paragraphs. 
Press <NL> twice to indicate a paragraph break. 

@quotation<Fang Rock lighthouse, center of a series of mysterious and
terrifying events at the turn of the century, is built on a rocky island
a few miles of the Channel coast. So small is the island that wherever
you stand its rocks are wet with sea spray. 

The lighthouse tower is in the center of the island. A steep flight of
steps leads to the heavy door in its base. Winding stairs lead up to
the crew room.>

@section<Basic cursor movement>

Now let's practice moving around in this text. To move the cursor back
to the word "Winding," enter @b<M-B> @i(previous-word)
@index(previous-word). This command moves the cursor backwards by one
word at a time. Note you have to press the key combination every time
the cursor steps back by one word. Continuously pressing META and
toggling B produces an error message. To move forward to the word
"stairs" enter @b<M-F> @i(next-word)@index(next-word), which moves the
cursor forward by one word at a time. 

Notice that EMACS commands are usually mnemonic--F for forward, B for
backward, for example.

To move the cursor up one line, enter @b<^P> @i(previous-line)
@index(previous-line), down one line @b<^N> @i(next-line)
@index(next-line). Practice this movement by moving the cursor to the
word "terrifying" in the second line. 

The cursor may also be moved forward or backward in smaller increments. 
To move forward by one character, enter @b<^F> @i(forward-character)
@index(forward-character), to move backward, @b<^B>
@i(backward-character) @index(backward-character). EMACS also allows
you to specify a number which is normally used to tell a command to
execute many times. To repeat most commands, press META and then the
number before you enter the command. Thus, the command META 5 ^F
(@b<M-5^F>) will move the cursor forward by five characters. Try moving
around in the text by using these commands. For extra practice, see how
close you can come to the word "small" in the first paragraph by giving
an argument to the commands listed here. 

Two other simple cursor commands that are useful to help us move around
in the text are @b<M-N> @i(next-paragraph) @index(next-paragraph) which
moves the cursor to the second paragraph, and @b<M-P>
@i(previous-paragraph) @index(previous-paragraph) which moves it back
to the previous paragraph. The cursor may also be moved rapidly from
one end of the line to the other. Move the cursor to the word "few" in
the second line. Press @b<^A> @i(beginning-of-line)
@index(beginning-of-line). Notice the cursor moves to the word
"events" at the beginning of the line. Pressing @b<^E> @i(end-of-line)
@index(end-of-line) moves the cursor to the end of the line. 

Finally, the cursor may be moved from any point in the file to the end
or beginning of the file. Entering @b{M->} @i(end-of-file)
@index(end-of-file) moves the cursor to the end of the buffer, @b{M-<}
@i(beginning-of-file) @index(beginning-of-file) to the first character
of the file. 

@i(On the IBM-PC, the ATARI ST and many other machines, the cursor keys
@index(cursor keys) can also be used to move the cursor.)

Practice moving the cursor in the text until you are comfortable with
the commands we've explored in this chapter.

@section(Saving your text)

When you've finished practicing cursor movement, save your file. Your
@index(buffer) file currently resides in a @b<BUFFER>. The buffer is a
temporary storage area for your text, and is lost when the computer is
turned off. You can save the buffer to a file by entering @b<^X^S>
@i(save-file) @index(save-file). Notice that EMACS informs you that
your file has no name and will not let you save it.

To save your buffer to a file with a different name than it's current
one (which is empty), press @b<^X^W> @i(write-file) @index(write-file). 
EMACS will prompt you for the filename you wish to write. Enter the
name @b<fang.txt> and press return. On a micro, the drive light will
come on, and EMACS will inform you it is writing the file. When it
finishes, it will inform you of the number of lines it has written to
the disk. 

Congratulations!! You've just saved your first EMACS file!
@newpage
@heading(Chapter @value(chapter) Summary)

	In chapter @value(chapter), you learned how to enter text, how
to use wrap mode, how to move the cursor, and to save a buffer. The
following is a table of the commands covered in this chapter and their
corresponding key bindings:

@begin{verbatim}
@u(Key Binding		Keystroke	Effect)

abort-command		@b<^G>		aborts current command

add-mode		@b<^XM> 	allows addition of EMACS
					mode such as @b(WRAP)

backward-character	@b<^B>		moves cursor left one character

beginning-of-file	@b{M-<} 	moves cursor to beginning of file

beginning-of-line	@b<^A>		moves cursor to beginning of line

end-of-file		@b{M->} 	moves cursor to end of file

end-of-line		@b<^E>		moves cursor to end of line

forward-character	@b<^F>		moves cursor right one character

next-line		@b<^N>		moves cursor to next line

next-paragraph		@b<M-N> 	moves cursor to next paragraph

next-word		@b<M-F> 	moves cursor forward one word

previous-line		@b<^P>		moves cursor backward by one line

previous-paragraph	@b<M-P> 	moves cursor to previous paragraph

previous-word		@b<M-B> 	moves cursor backward by one word

save-file		@b<^X^S>	saves current buffer to a file

write-file		@b<^X^W>	save current buffer under a new name
@end(verbatim)
@newpage
@chapter(Basic Editing--Simple Insertions and Deletions)

@section<A Word About Windows, Buffers, Screens, and Modes>

In the first chapter, you learned how to create and save a file in
EMACS. Let's do some more editing on this file. Call up emacs by
typing in the following command.

@b<emacs fang.txt>

@i(On icon oriented systems, double click on the uEMACS icon, usually a
file dialog box of some sort will appear. Choose @b(FANG.TXT) from the
appropriate folder.)

Shortly after you invoke EMACS, the text should appear on the screen
ready for you to edit. The text you are looking at currently resides in
a @b<buffer>. A buffer is a temporary area of computer memory which is
@index(buffer) the primary unit internal to EMACS -- this is the place
where EMACS goes to work. The mode line at the bottom of the screen
lists the buffer name, @b<FANG.TXT> and the name of the file with which
this buffer is associated, @b<FANG.TXT>

The computer talks to you through the use of its @b(screen). This
@index(screen) screen usually has an area of 24 lines each of 80
characters across. You can use EMACS to subdivide the screen into
several separate work areas, or @b(windows), each of which can be
@index(window) 'looking into' different files or sections of text. Using
windows, you can work on several related texts at one time, copying and
moving blocks of text between windows with ease. To keep track of what
you are editing, each window is identified by a @b(mode line) on the
@index(mode line) @index(buffer) last line of the window which lists the
name of the @b(buffer) which it is looking into, the file from which the
text was read, and how the text is being edited. 

An EMACS @b<mode> tells EMACS how to deal with user input. As we have
already seen, the mode 'WRAP' controls how EMACS deals with long lines
(lines with over 79 characters) while the user is typing them in. The
'VIEW' mode, allows you to read a file without modifying it. Modes are
associated with buffers and not with files; hence, a mode needs to be
explicitly set or removed every time you edit a file. A new file read
into a buffer with a previously specified mode will be edited under this
mode. If you use specific modes frequently, EMACS allows you to set
the modes which are used by all new buffers, called @b<global> modes. 

@section<Insertions>

Your previously-saved text should look like this:

@quotation<Fang Rock lighthouse, center of a series of mysterious and
terrifying events at the turn of the century, is built on a rocky island
a few miles of the Channel coast. So small is the island that wherever
you stand its rocks are wet with sea spray. 

The lighthouse tower is in the center of the island. A steep flight of
steps leads to the heavy door in its base. Winding stairs lead up to
the crew room.>

Let's assume you want to add a sentence in the second paragraph after
the word "base."  Move the cursor until it is on the "W" of "Winding".
Now type the following:

@quotation<This gives entry to the lower floor where the big steam
generator throbs steadily away, providing power for the electric
lantern.>

If the line fails to wrap and you end up with a '$' sign in the right
margin, just enter @b{M-Q} @i(fill-paragraph) @index(fill-paragraph) to
reformat the paragraph. This new command attempts to fill out a
paragraph. Long lines are divided up, and words are shuffled around to
make the paragraph look nicer. 

Notice that all visible EMACS characters are self-inserting -- all you
had to do was type the characters to insert and the existing text made
space for it. With a few exceptions discussed later, all non-printing
characters (such as control or escape sequences) are commands. To
insert spaces, simply use the space bar. Now move to the first line of
the file and type @b{^O} @i(open-line) @index(open-line) (Oh, not zero). 
You've just learned how to insert a blank line in your text. 

@section<Deletions>

EMACS offers a number of deletion options. For example, move the cursor
until it's under the period at the end of the insertion you just did. 
Press the backspace key. Notice the "n" on "lantern" disappeared. The
backspace implemented on EMACS is called a @b<destructive> backspace--it
removes text immediately before the current cursor position from the
buffer. Now type @b<^H> @i(delete-previous-character)
@index(delete-previous-character). Notice that the cursor moves back
and obliterates the "r"--either command will backspace the cursor. 

Type in the two letters you erased to restore your text and move the
cursor to the beginning of the buffer @b{M->} @i(beginning-of-file)
@index(beginning-of-file). Move the cursor down one line to the
beginning of the first paragraph. 

To delete the forward character, type @b{^D} @i(delete-next-character)
@index(delete-next-character). The "F" of "Fang" disappears. Continue
to type @b{^D} until the whole word is erased EMACS also permits the
deletion of larger elements of text. Move the cursor to the word
"center" in the first line of text. Pressing @b{M-<backspace>}
@i(delete-previous-word) @index(delete-previous-word) kills the word
immediately before the cursor. @b{M-^H} has the same effect. 

Notice that the commands are very similar to the control commands you
used to delete individual letters. As a general rule in EMACS, control
sequences affect small areas of text, META sequences larger areas. The
word forward of the cursor position can therefore be deleted by typing
@b{M-D} @i(delete-next-word) @index(delete-next-word). Now let's take
out the remainder of the first line by typing @b{^K}
@i(kill-to-end-of-line) @index(kill-to-end-of-line). You now have a
blank line at the top of your screen. Typing @b{^K} again or @b{^X^O}
@i(delete-blank-lines) @index(delete-blank-lines) deletes the blank line
and flushes the second line to the top of the text. Now exit EMACS by
typing @b{^X^C} @i(exit-emacs) @index(exit-emacs). Notice EMACS
reminds you that you have not saved your buffer. Ignore the warning and
exit. This way you can exit EMACS without saving any of the changes you
just made. 
@newpage
@heading(Chapter @value(chapter) Summary)

In Chapter @value(chapter), you learned about the basic 'building
blocks' of an EMACS text file--buffers, windows, and files. 

@begin{verbatim}
@u(Key binding		Keystroke	Effect)
delete-previous-character
			@b{^H}		deletes character immediately before
					the current cursor position

delete-next-character	@b{^D}		deletes character immediately after     
					current cursor position

delete-previous-word	@b{M-^H}	deletes word immediately before
					current cursor position

delete-next-word	@b{M-D} 	deletes word immediately after
					current cursor position

kill-to-end-of-line	@b<^K>		deletes from current cursor
					position to end of line

insert-space		@b<^C>		inserts a space to right of cursor

open-line		@b{^O}		inserts blank line

delete-blank-lines	@b{^X^O}	removes blank line

exit-emacs		@b{^X^C}	exits emacs
@end(verbatim)
@chapter(Using Regions)

@section(Defining and Deleting a Region)

At this point its time to familiarize ourselves with two more EMACS
terms--the @b<point> and the @b<mark>. The point is located directly
@index(point) @index(mark) behind the current cursor position. The mark
(as we shall see shortly) is user defined. These two elements together
are called the current @b(region) and limit the @b<region> of text on
which EMACS performs many of its editing functions. 

Let's begin by entering some new text. Don't forget to add @b(wrap)
mode if its not set on this buffer. Start EMACS and open a file called
@b{PUBLISH.TXT}. Type in the following text:

@quotation{One of the largest growth areas in personal computing is
electronic publishing. There are packages available for practically
every machine from elegantly simple programs for the humble Commodore 64
to sophisticated professional packages for PC and Macintosh computers. 

Electronic publishing is as revolutionary in its way as the Gutenburg
press. Whereas the printing press allowed the mass production and
distribution of the written word, electronic publishing puts the means
of production in the hands of nearly every individual. From the class
magazine to the corporate report, electronic publishing is changing the
way we produce and disseminate information. 

Personal publishing greatly increases the utility of practically every
computer. Thousands of people who joined the computer revolution of
this decade only to hide their machines unused in closets have
discovered a new use for them as dedicated publishing workstations.}

Now let's do some editing. The last paragraph seems a little out of
place. To see what the document looks like without it we can cut it
from the text by moving the cursor to the beginning of the paragraph. 
Enter @b(M-<space>) @i(set-mark) @index(set-mark). EMACS will respond
with "[Mark set]". Now move the cursor to the end of the paragraph. 
You have just defined a region of text. To remove this text from the
screen, type @b<^W> @i(kill-region) @index(kill-region). The paragraph
disappears from the screen. 

On further consideration, however, perhaps the paragraph we cut wasn't
so bad after all. The problem may have been one of placement. If we
could tack it on to the end of the first paragraph it might work quite
well to support and strengthen the argument. Move the cursor to the end
of the first paragraph and enter @b<^Y> @i(yank) @index(yank). Your
text should now look like this:

@quotation{One of the largest growth areas in personal computing is
electronic publishing. There are packages available for practically
every machine from elegantly simple programs for the humble Commodore 64
to sophisticated professional packages for PC and Macintosh computers. 
Personal publishing greatly increases the utility of practically every
computer. Thousands of people who joined the computer revolution of
this decade only to hide their machines unused in closets have
discovered a new use for them as dedicated publishing workstations. 

Electronic publishing is as revolutionary in its way as the Gutenburg
press. Whereas the printing press allowed the mass production and
distribution of the written word, electronic publishing puts the means
of production in the hands of nearly every individual. From the class
magazine to the corporate report, electronic publishing is changing the
way we produce and disseminate information.}

@section(Yanking a Region)

The text you cut initially didn't simply just disappear, it was cut into
a buffer that retains the 'killed' text appropriately called the @b<kill
buffer>. @b<^Y> "yanks" the text back from this buffer into the current
buffer. If you have a long line (indicated, remember, by the "$"
sign), simply hit @b{M-Q} to reformat the paragraph. 

There are other uses to which the kill buffer can be put. Using the
@index(kill buffer) method we've already learned, define the last
paragraph as a region. Now type @b<M-W> @i(copy-region)
@index(copy-region). Nothing seems to have happened; the cursor stays
blinking at the point. But things have changed, even though you may not
be able to see any alteration. 

To see what has happened to the contents of the kill buffer, move the
cursor down a couple of lines and "yank" the contents of the kill buffer
back with @b<^Y>. Notice the last paragraph is now repeated. The
region you defined is "tacked on" to the end of your file because
@b<M-W> @b<copies> a region to the kill buffer while leaving the
original text in your working buffer. Some caution is needed however,
because the contents of the kill buffer are updated when you delete any
regions, lines or words. If you are moving large quantities of text,
complete the operation before you do any more deletions or you could
find that the text you want to move has been replaced by the most recent
deletion. Remember--a buffer is a temporary area of computer memory
that is lost when the machine is powered down or switched off. In order
to make your changes permanent, they must be saved to a file before you
leave EMACS. Let's delete the section of text we just added and save
the file to disk. 

@heading(Chapter @value(chapter) Summary)

In Chapter @value(chapter), you learned how to achieve longer insertions
and deletions. The EMACS terms @b<point> and @b<mark> were introduced
and you learned how to manipulate text with the kill buffer. 

@begin{verbatim}
@begin(group)
@u(Key Binding	Keystroke	Effect)

set-mark	@b{M-<space>}	Marks the beginning of a region

delete-region	@b{^W}		Deletes region between point and mark and
				places it in KILL buffer

copy-region	@b{M-W} 	Copies text between point and mark into
				KILL buffer

yank-text	@b{^Y}		Inserts a copy of the KILL buffer into
				current buffer at point
@end(group)
@end(verbatim)
@chapter(Search and Replace)

@section<Forward Search>

Load EMACS and bring in the file you just saved. Your file should look
like the one below.

@quotation{One of the largest growth areas in personal computing is electronic
publishing. There are packages available for practically every machine
from elegantly simple programs for the humble Commodore 64 to
sophisticated professional packages for PC and Macintosh computers. 
Personal publishing greatly increases the utility of practically every
computer. Thousands of people who joined the computer revolution of
this decade only to hide their machines unused in closets have
discovered a new use for them as dedicated publishing workstations. 

Electronic publishing is as revolutionary in its way as the Gutenburg
press. Whereas the printing press allowed the mass production and
distribution of the written word, electronic publishing puts the means
of production in the hands of nearly every individual. From the class
magazine to the corporate report, electronic publishing is changing the
way we produce and disseminate information.}

Let's use EMACS to search for the word "revolutionary" in the second
paragraph. Because EMACS searches from the current cursor position
toward the end of buffers, and we intend to search forward, move the
cursor to the beginning of the text. Enter @b<^S> @i(search-forward)
@index(search-forward). Note that the command line now reads

"Search [] <META>:" 

EMACS is prompting you to enter the @b<search string> -- the text you
want to find. Enter the word @b<revolutionary> and hit the @b<META>
key. The cursor moves to the end of the word "revolutionary."

Notice that you must enter the <META> key to start the search. If you
@index(<NL>) simply press <NL> the command line responds with "<NL>". 
Although this may seem infuriating to users who are used to pressing the
return key to execute any command, EMACS' use of <META> to begin
searches allows it to pinpoint text with great accuracy. After every
line wrap or carriage return, EMACS 'sees' a new line character (<NL>). 
If you need to search for a word at the end of a line, you can specify
this word uniquely in EMACS. 

In our sample text for example, the word "and" occurs a number of times,
but only once at the end of a line. To search for this particular
occurrence of the word, move the cursor to the beginning of the buffer
and type @b(^S). Notice that EMACS stores the last specified
@index(default string) search string as the @b<default> string. If you
press @b{<META>} now, EMACS will search for the default string, in this
case, "revolutionary."

To change this string so we can search for our specified "and" simply
enter the word @b{and} followed by @b{<NL>}. The command
line now shows:

"search [and<NL>]<META>:"

Press @b{<META>} and the cursor moves to "and" at the end of the second
last line.

@section<Exact Searches>

If the mode EXACT is active in the current buffer, EMACS searches on a case
sensitive basis. Thus, for example you could search for @b{Publishing}
as distinct from @b{publishing}. 


@section<Backward Search>

Backward searching is very similar to forward searching except that it
is implemented in the reverse direction. To implement a reverse search,
type @b{^R} @i(search-reverse) @index(search-reverse). Because EMACS
makes no distinction between forward and backward stored search strings,
the last search item you entered appears as the default string. Try
searching back for any word that lies between the cursor and the
beginning of the buffer. Notice that when the item is found, the point
moves to the beginning of the found string (i.e., the cursor appears
under the first letter of the search item). 

Practice searching for other words in your text.

@section<Searching and Replacing>

Searching and replacing is a powerful and quick way of making changes to
your text. Our sample text is about electronic publishing, but the
correct term is 'desktop' publishing. To make the necessary changes we
need to replace all occurrences of the word "electronic" with "desktop."
First, move the cursor to the top of the current buffer with the @b(M-<)
command. Then type @b[M-R] @i(replace-string) @index(replace-string). 
The command line responds:

"Replace []<META>:"

where the square brackets enclose the default string. Type the word
@b<electronic> and hit @b{<META>}. The command line responds:

"with []<META>"

type @b{desktop<META>}. EMACS replaces all instances of the original
word with your revision. Of course, you will have to capitalize the
first letter of "desktop" where it occurs at the beginning of a
sentence.

You have just completed an @b<unconditional replace>. In this
operation, EMACS replaces every instance of the found string with the
replacement string. 
	 
@section<Query-Replace>

You may also replace text on a case by case basis. The @b{M-^R}
@i(query-replace-string) @index(query-replace-string) command causes
EMACS to pause at each instance of the found string. 

For example, assume we want to replace some instances of the word
"desktop" with the word "personal." Go back to the beginning of the
current buffer and enter the @b(M-^R) @i(query-replace)
@index(query-replace) command. The procedure is very similar to that
which you followed in the unconditional search/replace option. When the
search begins however, you will notice that EMACS pauses at each
instance of "publishing" and asks whether you wish to replace it with
the replacement string. You have a number of options available for
response:

@begin(verbatim)
@u(	Response	Effect)
	Y(es)	Make the current replacement and skip to the next
		occurrence of the search string

	N(o)	Do not make this replacement but continue

	!	Do the rest of the replacements with no more queries

	U(ndo)	Undo just the last replacement and query for it
		again (This can only go back ONE time)

	^G	Abort the replacement command (This action does not
		undo previously-authorized replacements

	. Same effect as ^G, but cursor returns to the point at
		which the replacement command was given

	?	This lists help for the query replacement command
@end(verbatim)

Practice searching and searching and replacing until you feel
comfortable with the commands and their effects.
@begin(group)
@heading(Chapter @value(chapter) Summary)

In this chapter, you learned how to search for specified strings of text
in EMACS. The chapter also dealt with searching for and replacing
elements within a buffer. 

@begin(verbatim)
@u(Key Binding		Keystroke			 Effect)

search-forward		@b{^S}	Searches from point to end of buffer.
				Point is moved from current location to
				the end of the found string

search-backward 	@b{^R}	Searches from point to beginning of buffer. 
				Point is moved from current location to
				beginning of found string

replace 		@b{M-R} Replace ALL occurrences of search string with 
				specified (null) string from point to the
				end of the current buffer

query-replace	       @b{M-^R} As above, but pause at each found string
				and query for action
@end(verbatim)
@end(group)
@chapter(Windows)

@section<Creating Windows>@index{Windows, Creating}

We have already met windows in an earlier chapter. In this chapter, we
will explore one of EMACS' more powerful features -- text manipulation
through multiple windowing. Windows offer you a powerful and easy way
to edit text. By manipulating a number of windows and buffers on the
screen simultaneously, you can perform complete edits and revisions on
the computer screen while having your draft text or original data
available for reference in another window. 

You will recall that windows are areas of buffer text that you can see
@index(windows) on the screen. Because EMACS can support several screen
windows simultaneously you can use them to look into different places in
the same buffer. You can also use them to look at text in different
buffers. In effect, you can edit several files at the same time. 

Let's invoke EMACS and pull back our file on desktop publishing by
typing

@quotation<emacs publish.txt>

When the text appears, type the @b{^X2} @i(split-current-window)
@index{split-current-window} command. The window splits into two
windows. The window where the cursor resides is called the @b<current>
window -- in this case the bottom window. Notice that each window has
a text area and a mode line. The @b(command line) @index{command line}
is however, common to all windows on the screen. 

The two windows on your screen are virtually mirror images of each other
because the new window is opened into the same buffer as the one you are
in when you issue the @i{open-window command} @index{open-window}. All
commands issued to EMACS are executed on the current buffer in the
current window. 

To move the cursor to the upper window (i.e., to make that window the
current window, type @b{^XP} @i(previous-window) @index{previous-window}. 
Notice the cursor
moves to the upper or @b<previous> window. Entering @b{^XO}
@i(next-window) moves to the @b{next} window. Practice moving between
windows. You will notice that you can also move into the Function Key
menu by entering these commands. 

Now move to the upper window. Let's open a new file. On the EMACS disk
is a tutorial file. Let's call it into the upper window by typing:

@quotation<^X^F>

and press return.

Enter the filename @b<emacs.tut>.

In a short time, the tutorial file will appear in the window. We now have
two windows on the screen, each looking into different buffers. We have
just used the @b(^X^F) @i(find-file) @index{find-file}
command to find a file and bring
it into our current window.

You can scroll any window up and down with the cursor keys, or with the
commands we've learned so far. However, because the area of visible
text in each window is relatively small, you can scroll the current
window a line at a time. 

Type @b{^X^N} @i(move-window-down)@index{move-window-down}

The current window scrolls down by one line -- the top line of text
scrolls out of view, and the bottom line moves towards the top of the
screen. You can imagine, if you like, the whole window slowly moving
down to the end of the buffer in increments of one line. The command
@b{^X^P} @i(move-window-up)@index{move-window-up} 
scrolls the window in the opposite
direction. 

As we have seen, EMACS editing commands are executed in the current
window, but the program does support a useful feature that allows you
to scroll the @b<next> window. @b<M-^Z> @i(scroll-next-up)
@index{scroll-next-up} scrolls the next window up, @b{M-^V}
@i(scroll-next-down)@index{scroll-next-down}  scrolls it downward. 
From the tutorial window, practice scrolling the window with the
desktop publishing text in it up and down. 

When you're finished, exit EMACS without saving any changes in your
files. 


Experiment with splitting the windows on your screen. Open windows
into different buffers and experiment with any other files you may
have. Try editing the text in each window, but don't forget to save
any changes you want to keep -- you still have to save each buffer
separately.

@section(Deleting Windows)@index{Windows, Deleting}
Windows allow you to perform complex editing tasks with ease. However,
they become an inconvenience when your screen is cluttered with open
windows you have finished using. The simplest solution is to delete
unneeded windows. The command @b{^X0} @i{delete-window}
will delete the window you are currently working in and move you to the
next window.

If you have a number of windows open, you can delete all but the current
window by entering @b{^X1} @i{delete-other-windows}.

@section(Resizing Windows)@index{Windows, Resizing} 

During complex editing tasks, you will probably find it convenient to
have a number of windows on the screen simultaneously. However this
situation may present inconveniences because the more windows you have
on the screen the smaller they are; in some cases, a window may show
only a couple of lines of text. To increase the flexibility and utility
of the window environment, EMACS allows you to resize the window you are
working in (called, as you will recall, the @b<current> window) to a
convenient size for easier editing, and then shrink it when you no
longer need it to be so large. 

Let's try an example. Load in any EMACS text file and split the current
window into two. Now type @b{^X^(Shift-6)},
@i{grow-window}@index{grow-window}. Your current window should be
the lower one on the screen. Notice that it increases in size upwards
by one line. If you are in the upper window, it increases in size in a
downward direction. The command @b{^X^Z},
@i{shrink-window}@index{shrink-window} correspondingly decreases window
size by one line at a time. 

EMACS also allows you to resize a window more precisely by entering a
numeric argument specifying the size of the window in lines. To resize
the window this way, press the META key and enter a numeric argument
(remember to keep it smaller than the number of lines on your screen
display) then press @b{^XW} @i{resize-window}@index{resize-window}. 
The current window will be enlarged or shrunk to the number of lines
specified in the numeric argument. For example entering:

@quotation{@b[M-8 ^XW]}will resize the current window to 8 lines.

@section(Repositioning within a Window)

The cursor may be centered within a window by entering @b{M-! or M-^L}
@i{redraw-display} @index{redraw-display}. This command is especially
useful in allowing you to quickly locate the cursor if you are moving
frequently from window to window. You can also use this command to move
the line containing the cursor to any position within the current
window. This is done by using a numeric argument before the command.
Type @b(M-<n> M-^L) where <n> is the number of the line within the
window that you wish the current line to be displayed.

The @b{^L} @i{clear-and-redraw} @index{clear-and-redraw} command is
useful for 'cleaning up' a 'messy' screen that can result of using EMACS
on a mainframe system and being interrupted by a system message. 
@newpage
@u<Chapter @value(chapter) summary>

In Chapter @value(chapter) you learned how to manipulate windows and the
editing flexibility they offer. 

@begin(verbatim)
@u(Key Binding	Keystroke	Effect)

open-window	@b{^X2}		Splits current window into two windows if
				space available

close-windows	@b{^X1} 	Closes all windows except current window

next-window	@b{^XO}[oh]	Moves point into next (i.e. downward) window

previous-window @b{^XP} 	Moves point to previous (i.e. upward) window

move-window-down @b{^X^N}	Scrolls current window down one line

move-window-up	@b{^X^P}	Scrolls current window up one line

redraw-display	@b{M !} or	Window is moved so line with point
		@b{M ^L}	(with cursor) is at center of window

grow-window	@b{M-X ^}	Current window is enlarged by one
				line and nearest window is shrunk by 
				one line

shrink-window	@b{^X^Z}	Current window is shrunk by one line
				and nearest window is enlarged by one line

clear-and-redraw @b{^L} 	Screen is blanked and redrawn. Keeps
				screen updates in sync with your commands

scroll-next-up	@b{M-^Z}	Scrolls next window up by one line

scroll-next-down @b{M-^V}	Scrolls next window down by one line

delete-window	@b{^X0} 	Deletes current window

delete-other-windows @b{^X1}	Deletes all but current window

resize-window	@b{^X^W}	Resizes window to a given numeric argument
@end(verbatim)
@chapter(Using a Mouse)

	On computers equipped with a mouse@index(mouse), the mouse can
usually be used to make editing easier. If your computer has a mouse,
let's try using it. Start MicroEMACS by typing:

	emacs publish.txt

	This brings EMACS up and allows it to edit the file from the
last chapter. If the function key window is visible on the screen,
press the F5 key to cause it to disappear. Now use the @b(^X2)
@i(split-current-window) command to split the screen into two windows. 
Next use the @b(^X^F) @i(find-file) command to read in the @b(fang.txt)
file. Now your screen should have two windows looking into two
different files.

	Grab the mouse and move it around. On the screen an arrow, or
block of color appears. This is called the mouse cursor @index(mouse
cursor) and can be positioned on any character on the screen. On some
computers, positioning the mouse cursor in the extreme upper right or
left corner may bring down menus which allow you to access that
computers utilities, sometimes called @b(Desk Accessories) @index(desk
accessories).

@section(Moving around with the mouse)

	Using the mouse button (or the left button if the mouse has more
than one), position the mouse over some character in the current window. 
Click the mouse button once. The @b(point) will move to where the mouse
cursor is. If you place the mouse cursor past the end of a line, the
point will move to the end of that line.

	Move the mouse cursor into the other window and click on one of
the characters there. MicroEMACS will automatically make this window
the current window (notice that the mode line changes) and position the
point to the mouse cursor. This makes it very easy to use the mouse to
switch to a different window quickly.

@section(Dragging around)

	Besides just using the mouse to move around on the screen, you
can use the same button to move text. Move the mouse cursor to a
character in one of the windows, and click down... but don't let the
button up yet!	The point will move to where the mouse cursor is. Now
move the mouse cursor up or down on the screen, and release the button.
The point will again move to where the mouse cursor is, but this time
it will bring the text under it along for the ride. This is called
@b(dragging)@index(dragging), and is how you can make the text appear
just where you want it to. If you try to drag text out of the current
window, EMACS will ignore your attempt and leave the point where you
first clicked down. @index(vertical scrolling)

	Now, click down on a word in one of the windows, and drag it
directly to the left. Release the button and watch as the entire
window slides, or @b(scrolls) @index(horizontal scrolling) to the left. 
The missing text has not been deleted, it is simply not visible, off the
left hand side of the screen. Notice the mode line has changed and now
looks like:

@flushleft(==== MicroEMACS 3.12 [<12] () == fang.txt == File: fang.txt ==============)

	The number insided the brackets [] shows that the screen is now
scrolled 12 characters from the left margin.

	Now grab the same text again, and drag it to the right, pulling
the rest of the text back into the current window. The [<] field will
disappear, meaning that the window is no longer scrolled to the left. 
This feature is very useful for looking at wide charts and tables. 
Remember, MicroEMACS will only scroll the text in the current window
sideways if you drag it straight to the side, otherwise it will drag
the text vertically.

	Now, place the mouse cursor over a character on the upper mode
line, click down, move the mouse cursor up or down a few lines and let
go of the button. The mode line moves to where you dragged it, 
changing the size of the windows above and below it. If you try to
make a window with less than one line, EMACS will not let you. Dragging
the mode lines can make it very fast and easy for you to rearrange the
windows as you would like.

	If you have a number of different windows visible on the screen,
positioning the mouse over the mode line of one window and clicking the
right mouse button will cause that window to be deleted.

@section(Cut and Paste)

	If your mouse has two buttons, then you can use the right
button to do some other things as well. Earlier, we learned how to
define a @b(region)@index(region) by using the @b(M-<space>)
@i(set-mark) command. Now, position the mouse over at the beginning of
a region you would like to copy. Next click and hold down the right
mouse button. Notice that the point jumps to the mouse cursor and
EMACS reports "[Mark Set]". Holding the button down move the mouse to
the end of the text you wish to copy and release the mouse button. 
Emacs reports "[Region Copied]" to let you know it has copied the
region into the KILL buffer. This has done the same job as the @b(M-W)
@i(copy-region) command.

	If you now click the right mouse button,
without moving the mouse, the region you defined dissapear, being
@b(cut)@index(cut) from the current buffer. This works just like the
@b(^W) @i(kill-region) command.

	If you move the mouse away from where you cut the text, and
click the right mouse button down and up without moving the mouse, the
text in the KILL buffer gets inserted, or pasted@index(paste) into the
current buffer at the point.

@section(Screens)

	MicroEMACS can use more than one screen@index(screen) at once.
Each screen is a collection of @i(windows) along with a mode line. These
screens usually fill the terminal or computer screen on text based
systems, but can also be held in different @b(windows) on graphically
based systems like MicroSoft Windows, OS/2, the Macintosh Finder and
X-Windows. Don't be confused by the two different uses of the term
"window". Inside EMACS style editors, a @i(window) lets you view part of
a buffer. Under graphical operating systems, a @b(window) holds a
"virtual terminal", allowing you to manipulate more than one job,
editing session or program at once. Within MicroEMACS, these operating
system @b(window)s are called screens. All these screens are displayed
on your current desktop@index(desktop).

@section(Resizing a Screen)

	You can change the size of a screen. Move the mouse to the last
position of the command line. Press the left mouse button down. Holding
it, move the mouse to the place you want the new lower right corner.
Release the mouse. The desktop redraws, with your newly resized screen.
MicroEMACS will ignore size changes that can not be done, like
attempting to pull the lower left corner above the upper right corner of
the current screen.

@section(Moving a Screen)

	To change where on the desktop a screen is placed, move the
mouse to the upper right corner of the screen, press the left mouse
button down, move the mouse and release it where you want the screen
displayed. Again, MicroEMACS will ignore placements that can not be
done.

@section(Creating a Screen)

	Creating a new screen is just like moving a screen, but using
the right button. Move to the upper right of an existing screen, press
the right mouse button down, and move the mouse, releasing the button
where the new screen should appear. A new screen will have a single
@b(window), containing the contents of the current window in the copied
screen, and will have that @b(window)'s colors. The new screen will have
the copied screen's size.

@section(Switching to a Screen)

	This is simple. Any mouse command can be done in any screen by
placing the mouse on a visible part of the screen and clicking. The last
screen the mouse is used on comes to front and is the current screen.
Also, the @b(A-C) @i(cycle-screens)@index(cycle-screens) command brings
the rearmost screen to front.

@section(Deleting a Screen)

	Place the mouse on the command line of the screen you want to
delete. Click the right mouse button, the screen will disapear. If you
delete the only remaining screen on the desktop, MicroEMACS will exit.
@newpage
@heading(Chapter @value(chapter) Summary)

In Chapter @value(chapter), you learned how to use the mouse to move the
point, switch windows, drag text, and resize windows. You also learned
how to use the right mouse button in order to copy and delete regions
and yank them back at other places. And lastly, you learned how to
control multiple screens with the mouse.

@begin{verbatim}
@begin(group)
@u(Action	Mouse Directions)

Move Cursor	position mouse cursor over desired location
		click down and up with left button

Drag Text	position mouse cursor over desired text
		click left button down
		move to new screen location for text
		release mouse button

Resize Windows	position mouse cursor over mode line to move
		click left button down
		move to new location for mode line
		release mouse button

Delete Window	position mouse cursor over mode line of window to delete
		click right mouse button

Activate Screen	Move mouse over existing screen
		click left button down and up

Resize Screen	position mouse cursor over last character on message line
		click left button down
		move to new lower right corner of screen
		release mouse button

Copy Region	position mouse at beginning of region
		click right button down
		move to end of region
		release mouse button

Cut Region	position mouse at beginning of region
		click right button down
		move to end of region
		release mouse button
		click right button down and up

Paste Region	position mouse at place to paste
		click right button down and up

Create Screen	position mouse at upper left corner of existing screen
		click right button down
		move to position of new screen
		release mouse button

Resize Screen	position mouse at lower right corner of screen
		click left button down
		move to new lower left corner
		release mouse button

Move Screen	position mouse at upper right corner of screen
		click left button down
		move to new screen position
		release mouse button

Delete Screen	position to command line of existing screen
		click right button down
		release mouse button
@end(group)
@end(verbatim)
@chapter(Buffers)

@index(buffer)We have already learned a number of things about buffers.
As you will recall, they are the major internal entities in EMACS --
the place where editing commands are executed. They are characterized
by their @b<names>, their @b<modes>, and by the file with which they
are associated. Each buffer also "remembers" its @b(mark) and
@b(point). This convenient feature allows you to go to other buffers
and return to the original location in the "current" buffer. 

Advanced users of EMACS frequently have a number of buffers in the
computer's memory simultaneously. In the last chapter, for example, you
opened at least two buffers -- one into the text you were editing, and
the other into the EMACS on-line tutorial. If you deal with complex
text files -- say, sectioned chapters of a book, you may have five or
six buffers in the computer's memory. You could select different
buffers by simply calling up the file with @b{^X^F} @i(find-file)
@index(find-file), and let EMACS open or reopen the buffer. However,
EMACS offers fast and sophisticated buffering techniques that you will
find easy to master and much more convenient to use. 

Let's begin by opening three buffers. You can open any three you
choose, for example call the following files into memory: @b(fang.txt),
@b(publish.txt), and @b(emacs.tut) in the order listed here. When
you've finished this process, you'll be looking at a screen showing the
EMACS tutorial. Let's assume that you want to move to the fang.txt
buffer. Enter:

@b{^XX} @i(next-buffer) @index(next-buffer)

This command moves you to the @u<next> buffer. Because EMACS cycles
through the buffer list, which is alphabetized, you will now be in the
@b(fang.txt) buffer. Using @b(^XX) again places you in the
@b(publish.txt) buffer. @i(If you are on a machine that supports
function keys, using @b[^XX] again places you in the @b(Function Keys)
buffer). Using @b(^XX) one last time cycles you back to the beginning
of the list.

If you have a large number of buffers to deal with, this cycling process
may be slow and inconvenient. The command @b{^XB} @i(select-buffer)
@index(select-buffer) allows you to specify the buffer you wish to be
switched to. When the command is entered, EMACS prompts, "Use buffer:". 
Simply enter the buffer name (NOT the file name), and that buffer will
then become the current buffer. If you type in part of the file name
and press the space bar, EMACS will attempt to complete the name from
the list of current buffers. If it succeeds, it will print the rest of
the name and you can hit <NL> to switch to that buffer. If EMACS beeps
the bell, there is no such buffer, and you may continue editing the name
on the command line.

Multiple buffer manipulation and editing is a complex activity, and you
will probably find it very inconvenient to re-save each buffer as you
modify it. The command @b{^X^B} @i(list-buffers) @index(list-buffers)
creates a new window that gives details about all the buffers currently
known to EMACS. Buffers that have been modified are identified by the
"buffer changed" indicator (an asterisk in the second column). You can
thus quickly and easily identify buffers that need to be saved to files
before you exit EMACS. The buffer window also provides other
information -- buffer specific modes, buffer size, and buffer name are
also listed. To close this window, simply type the close-windows
command, @b{^X1}. 

To delete any buffer, type @b{^XK} @i(delete-buffer)
@index(delete-buffer). EMACS prompts you "Kill buffer:". Enter the
buffer name you want to delete. As this is destructive command, EMACS
will ask for confirmation if the buffer was changed and not saved. 
Answer Y(es) or N(o). As usual @b{^G} cancels the command. 

@newpage
@heading(Chapter @value(chapter) Summary)

In Chapter @value(chapter) you learned how to manipulate buffers. 

@begin{verbatim}
@u(Key Binding		Keystroke		       Effect)
next-buffer		@b(^X^X)	Switch to the next buffer in the
					buffer list

select-buffer		@b(^XB) 	Switch to a particular buffer

list-buffers		@b(^X^B)	List all buffers

delete-buffer		@b(^XK) 	Delete a particular buffer if it
					is off-screen
@end(verbatim)
@chapter(Modes)

	EMACS allows you to change the way it works in order to
customized it to the style of editing you are using. It does this by
providing a number of different @b(modes) @index(modes). These modes
can effect either a single buffer, or any new buffer that is created. 
To add a mode to the current buffer, type @b(^XM) @i(add-mode)
@index(add-mode). EMACS will then prompt you for the name of a mode to
add. When you type in a legal mode name, and type a <NL>, EMACS will
add the mode name to the list of current mode names in the mode line of
the current buffer. 

	To remove an existing mode, typing the @b(^X^M) @i(delete-mode)
@index(delete-mode) will cause EMACS to prompt you for the name of a
mode to delete from the current buffer. This will remove that mode from
the mode list on the current mode line.

	Global modes are the modes which are inherited by any new
buffers which are created. For example, if you wish to always do string
searching with character case being significant, you would want global
mode EXACT to be set so that any new files read in inherent the EXACT
mode. Global modes are set with the @b(M-M) @i(add-global-mode)
@index(add-global-mode) command, and unset with the @b(M-^M)
@i(delete-global-mode) @index(delete-global-mode) command. Also, the
current global modes are displayed in the first line of a
@b(^X^B) @i(list-buffers) @index(list-buffers) command.

	On machines which are capable of displaying colors,
@index(color) the mode commands can also set the background and
foreground character colors. Using @i(add-mode) or @i(delete-mode) with
a lowercase color will set the background color in the current window. 
An uppercase color will set the foreground color in the current window. 
Colors that EMACS knows about are: white, cyan, magenta, yellow, blue,
red, green, and black. If the computer you are running on does not have
eight colors, EMACS will attempt to make some intelligent guess at what
color to use when you ask for one which is not there. 

@section(ASAVE mode)@index(ASAVE mode)

	Automatic Save mode tells EMACS to automatically write out the
current buffer to its associated file on a regular basis. Normally this
will be every 256 characters typed into the file. The environment
variable $ACOUNT counts down to the next auto-save, and $ASAVE is the
value used to reset $ACOUNT after a save occurs. 

@section(CMODE mode)@index(CMODE mode)

	CMODE is useful to C programmers. When CMODE is active, EMACS
will try to assist the user in a number of ways. This mode is set
automatically with files that have a .c or .h extension. 

	The <NL> key will normally attempt to return the user to the
next line at the same level of indentation as the last non blank line,
unless the current line ends with a open brace ({) in which case the
new line will be further indented by one tab position.

	A close brace (}) will search for the corresponding open brace
and line up with it.

	A pound sign (#) with only leading white space will delete all
the white space preceding itself. This will always bring preprocessor
directives flush to the left margin.

	Whenever any close fence is typed, IE )]>}, if the matching open
fence is on screen in the current window, the cursor will briefly flash
to it, and then back. This makes balancing expressions, and matching
blocks much easier.

@section(CRYPT mode)@index(CRYPT mode)

	When a buffer is in CRYPT mode, @index(encryption) it is
encrypted whenever it is written to a file, and decrypted when it is
read from the file. The encryption key can be specified on the command
line with the -k switch, or with the @b(M-E) @i(set-encryption-key)
@index(set-encryption-key) command. If you attempt to read or write a
buffer in crypt mode and now key has not been set, EMACS will execute
@i(set-encryption-key) automatically, prompting you for the needed key. 
Whenever EMACS prompts you for a key, it will not echo the key to your
screen as you type it (IE make SURE you get it right when you set it
originally).

	The encryption algorithm used changes all characters into normal
printing characters, thus the resulting file is suitable for sending via
electronic mail. All version of MicroEMACS should be able decrypt the
resulting file regardless of what machine encrypted it. Also available
with EMACS is the stand alone program, MicroCRYPT, which can en/decrypt
the files produced by CRYPT mode in EMACS.

@section(EXACT mode)@index(EXACT mode)

	All string searches and replacements will take upper/lower case
into account. Normally the case of a string during a search or replace
is not taken into account.

@section(MAGIC mode)@index(MAGIC mode)

     In the MAGIC mode certain characters gain special meanings when
used in a search pattern. Collectively they are know as @index(regular
expressions) regular expressions, and a limited number of them are
supported in MicroEmacs. They grant greater flexibility when using the
search command. They have no affect on the incremental search
command. 

     The symbols that have special meaning in MAGIC mode are
^, $, ., &, ?, *, +, [ (and ], used with it), and \.

     The characters ^ and $ fix the search pattern to the beginning and
end of line, respectively. The ^ character must appear at the beginning
of the search string, and the $ must appear at the end, otherwise they
lose their meaning and are treated just like any other character. For
example, in MAGIC mode, searching for the pattern "t$" would put the
cursor at the end of any line that ended with the letter 't'. Note that
this is different than searching for "t<NL>", that is, 't' followed by a
newline character. The character $ (and ^, for that matter) matches a
position, not a character, so the cursor remains at the end of the line. 
But a newline is a character that must be matched like any other
character, which means that the cursor is placed just after it - on the
beginning of the next line. 

     The character . has a very simple meaning -- it matches any single
character, except the newline. Thus a search for "bad.er" could match
"badger", "badder" (slang), or up to the 'r' of "bad error". 

     The character [ indicates the beginning of a character class. It
is similar to the 'any' character ., but you get to choose which
characters you want to match. The character class is ended with the
character ]. So, while a search for "ba.e" will match "bane", "bade",
"bale", "bate", et cetera, you can limit it to matching "babe" and
"bake" by searching for "ba[bk]e". Only one of the characters inside
the [ and ] will match a character. If in fact you want to match any
character except those in the character class, you can put a ^ as the
first character. It must be the first character of the class, or else
it has no special meaning. So, a search for [^aeiou] will match any
character except a vowel, but a search for [aeiou^] will match any vowel
or a ^.

If you have many characters in order, that you want to put in the
character class, you may use a dash (-) as a range character. So, [a-z]
will match any letter (or any lower case letter if EXACT mode is on),
and [0-9a-f] will match any digit or any letter 'a' through 'f', which
happen to be the characters for hexadecimal numbers. If the dash is at
the beginning or end of a character class, it is taken to be just a
dash. 

     The ? character indicates that the preceding character is optional.
The character may or may not appear in the matched string. For example,
a search for "bea?st" would match both "beast" and "best". If there is
no preceding charcter for ? to modify, it is treated as a normal
question mark character.

     The * character is known as closure, and means that zero or more
of the preceding character will match. If there is no preceding character,
 * has no special meaning and is treated as a normal asterisk. The
closure symbol will also have no special meaning if it is preceded by
the beginning of line symbol ^, since it represents a position, not a
character. 

     The notion of zero or more characters is important. If, for
example, your cursor was on the line

@quotation(This line is missing two vowels.)

and a search was made for "a*", the cursor would not move, because it is
guaranteed to match no letter 'a' , which satisfies the search
conditions. If you wanted to search for one or more of the letter 'a',
you could search for "aa*", which would match the letter a, then zero or
more of them. A better way, however, is to use the + character.

     The + character behaves in every respect like the * character, with
the exception that its minimum match range is one, not zero. Thus the
pattern "a+" is identical to "aa*".

     Under older versions of MicroEMACS, the closure symbols would not
operate on newlines. The current versions no longer have this restriction.

     The \ is the escape character. With the exception of groups, which
are explained below, the \ is used at those times when you want to be in
MAGIC mode, but also want a regular expression character to be just a
character. It turns off the special meaning of the character. So a
search for "it\." will search for a line with "it.", and not "it"
followed by any other character. Or, a search for "TEST\*+" would match
the word TEST followed by one or more asterisks. The escape character
will also let you put ^, -, or ] inside a character class with no
special side effects.

     The character pair \( represent the start of a group in a search
string. A group is ended by the character pair \). All characters
matched within the \( and \) are part of a numbered group, and may be
referenced with the &GROUP function, or with a \ followed by the group
number in the replacement string of @i(replace-string)
@index(replace-string) or the
@i(query-replace-string) @index(query-replace-string) commands. For
example, a search for "INDEX\([0-9]+\)", to be replaced by "getind(\1)"
would change

@quotation(indptr := INDEX42) to @quotation(indptr := getind(42)).

     There may be up to nine groups. Groups may be nested.

     The character & (ampersand) is a replacement character, and
represents all the characters which were matched by the search string. 
When used in the @b[M-R] @i(replace-string) @index(replace-string) or
the @b[M-^R]
@i(query-replace-string) @index(query-replace-string) commands, the &
will be substituted for the search string. 

@section(OVER mode)@index(OVER mode)

	OVER mode stands for overwrite mode. When in this mode, when
characters are typed, instead of simply inserting them into the file,
EMACS will attempt to overwrite an existing character past the point. 
This is very useful for adjusting tables and diagrams. 

@section(WRAP mode)@index(WRAP mode)

	Wrap mode is used when typing in continuous text. Whenever the
cursor is past the currently set fill column @index(fill column) (72 by
default) and the user types a space or a <NL>, the last word of the line
is brought down to the beginning of the next line. Using this, one just
types a continuous stream of words and EMACS automatically inserts <NL>s
at appropriate places.

@center(NOTE to programmers:)

@quotation{The EMACS variable $wraphook contains the name of the
function which executes when EMACS detects it is time to wrap. This is
set to the function @i(wrap-word) @index(wrap-word) by default, but can
be changed to activate different functions and macroes at wrap time.}

@section(VIEW mode)@index(VIEW mode)

	VIEW mode disables all commands which can change the current
buffer. EMACS will display an error message and ring the bell every
time you attempt to change a buffer in VIEW mode.
@newpage
@heading(Chapter @value(chapter) Summary)

In Chapter @value(chapter) you learned about modes and their effects.

@begin{verbatim}
@u(Key Binding		Keystroke		       Effect)
add-mode		@b(^XM) 	Add a mode to the current buffer

delete-mode		@b(^X^M)	Delete a mode from the current buffer

add-global-mode 	@b(M-M) 	Add a global mode to the
					current buffer

delete-global-mode	@b(M-^M)	Delete a global mode from the
					current buffer
@end(verbatim)
@chapter(Files)

A file is simply a collection of related data. In EMACS we are dealing
with text files -- named collections of text residing on a disk (or some
other storage medium). You will recall that the major entities EMACS
deals with are buffers. Disk-based versions of files are only active in
EMACS when you are reading into or writing out of buffers. As we have
already seen, buffers and physical files are linked by associated
file names. For example, the buffer "ch7.txt" which is associated with
the physical disk file "ch7.txt." You will notice that the file is
usually specified by the drive name or (in the case of a hard drive) a
path. Thus you can specify full file names in EMACS,

e.g. disk:\directories\filename.extension

If you do not specify a disk and directories, the default disk and the
current directory is used.

IMPORTANT -- If you do not explicitly save your buffer to a file, all your
edits will be lost when you leave EMACS (although EMACS will prompt you
when you are about to lose edits by exiting). In addition, EMACS does
not protect your disk-based files from overwriting when it saves files. 
Thus when you instruct EMACS to save a file to disk, it will create a
file if the specified file doesn't exist, or it will overwrite the
previously saved version of the file thus replacing it. Your old
version is gone forever. 

If you are at all unsure about your edits, or if (for any reason) you
wish to keep previous versions of a file, you can change the name of
the associated file with the command @b{^XN}
@i(change-file-name)@index(change-file-name). When this file is saved
to disk, EMACS will create a new physical file under the new name. The
earlier disk file will be preserved.

For example, let's load the file @b{fang.txt} into EMACS. Now, type
@b{^XN}. The EMACS command line prompts "Name:". Enter a new name
for the file -- say @b(new.txt) and press <NL>. The file will be
saved under the new filename, and your disk directory will show both
@b(fang.txt) and @b(new.txt).

An alternative method is to write the file directly to disk under a new
filename. Let's pull our "publish.txt" file into EMACS. To write this
file under another filename, type @b{^X^W}
@i(write-file)@index(writefile). EMACS will prompt you "write file:". 
Enter an alternate filename -- @b{desktop.txt}. Your file will be
saved as the physical file "desktop.txt".

Note that in the examples above, although you have changed the names of
the related files, the buffer names remain the same. However, when you
pull the physical file back into EMACS, you will find that the buffer
name now relates to the filename.

For example -- You are working with a buffer "fang.txt" with the related
file "fang.txt". You change the name of the file to "new.txt". EMACS
now shows you working with the buffer "fang.txt" and the related file
"new.txt". Now pull the file "new.txt" into EMACS. Notice that the
buffer name has now changed to "new.txt". 

If for any reason a conflict of buffer names occurs,(if you have files
of the same name on different drives for example) EMACS will prompt
you "use buffer:". Enter an alternative buffer name if you need to. 

For a list of file related commands (including some we`ve already
seen), see the summary page.
@newpage
@heading(Chapter @value(chapter) Summary)

In Chapter @value(chapter) you learned some of the more advanced
concepts of file naming and manipulation. The relationship between
files and buffers was discussed in some detail. 

@begin(verbatim)
@u(Key Binding	Keystroke	Effect)

save-file	@b{^X^S}	Saves contents of current buffer with
				associated filename on default disk/
				directory (if not specified)

write-file	@b{^X^W}	Current buffer contents will be
				saved under specified name 

change-file-name
		@b{^XN} 	The associated filename is changed
				(or associated if not previously
				specified) as specified

find-file	@b{^X^F}	Reads specified file into buffer and 
				switches you to that buffer, or switches
				to buffer in which the file has previously
				been read

read-file	@b{^X^R}	Reads file into buffer thus overwriting
				buffer contents. If file has already
				been read into another buffer, you will
				be switched to it

view-file	@b{^X^V}	The same as read-file except the buffer
				is automatically put into VIEW mode thus 
				preventing any changes from being made
@end{verbatim}
@chapter(Screen Formatting)

@section<Wrapping Text>

As we learned in the introduction, EMACS is not a word processor, but an
editor. Some simple formatting options are available however, although
in most cases they will not affect the appearance of the finished text
@index(wrapping text) when it is run through the formatter. We have
already encountered WRAP mode which wraps lines longer than a certain
length (default is 75 characters). You will recall that WRAP is enabled
by entering @b{^XM} and responding to the command line prompt with
@b{wrap}. 

You can also set your own wrap margin with the command @b{^XF}
@i(set-fill-column) @index(set-fill-column). Notice EMACS responds
"[Fill column is 1]." Now try typing some text. You'll notice some very
strange things happening -- your text wraps at every word!! This effect
occurs because the set wrap margin command must be preceded by a
numeric argument or EMACS sets it to the first column. Thus any text
you type that extends past the first column will wrap at the most
convenient line break. 

To reset the wrap column to 72 characters, press the @b{<META>} key and
enter 72. EMACS will respond "Arg: 72". Now press @b<^XF>. EMACS
will respond "[Fill column is 72]". Your text will again wrap at the
margin you've been using up to this point.

@section<Reformatting Paragraphs>

After an intensive editing session, you may find that you have
paragraphs containing lines of differing lengths. Although this
disparity will not affect the formatted text, aesthetic and technical
concerns may make it desirable to have consistent paragraph blocks on
the screen. If you are in WRAP mode, you can reformat a paragraph with
the command @b{M-Q} @i(fill-paragraph) @index(fill-paragraph). This
command 'fills' the current paragraph reformatting it so all the lines
are filled and wrap logically.

@section<Changing Case>

There may be occasions when you find it necessary to change the case of
the text you've entered. EMACS allows you to change the case of even
large amounts of text with ease. Let's try and convert a few of the
office traditionalists to the joy of word processing. Type in the
following text:

@quotation{Throw away your typewriter and learn to use a word processor. 
Word processing is relatively easy to learn and will increase your
productivity enormously. Enter the Computer Age and find out just how
much fun it can be!!}

Let's give it a little more impact by capitalizing the first four words. 
The first step is to define the region of text just as you would if you
were doing an extensive deletion. Set the mark at the beginning of the
paragraph with @b{M-<space>} @i(set-mark) and move the cursor to the
space beyond "typewriter." Now enter @b{^X^U} @i(case-region-upper). 
Your text should now look like this:

@quotation{THROW AWAY YOUR TYPEWRITER and learn to use a word processor. 
Word processing is relatively easy to learn and will increase your
productivity enormously. Enter the Computer Age and find out just how
much fun it can be!!}

If you want to change the text back to lower case, type @b{^X^L}
@i(case-region-lower) @index(case-region-lower). You can also
capitalize individual words. To capitalize the word "fun", position the
cursor in front of the word and type @b{M-U} @i(case-word-upper)
@index(case-word-upper). The word is now capitalized. To change it
ck to lower case, move the cursor back to the beginning of the word
and type @b{M-L} @i(case-word-lower) @index(case-word-lower). 

You may also capitalize individual letters in EMACS. The command
@b{M-C} @i(case-word-capitalize) @index(case-word-capitalize)
capitalizes the first letter after the point. This command would
normally be issued with the cursor positioned in front of the first
letter of the word you wish to capitalize. If you issue it in the
middle of a word, you can end up with some strAnge looking text. 

@section<Tabs>

Unless your formatter is instructed to take screen text literally (as
MicroSCRIBE does in the 'verbatim' environment for example), tabs in
EMACS generally affect screen formatting only. 

When EMACS is first started, it sets the default tab to every eighth
column. As long as you stay with default, every time you press the tab
key a tab character, @b(^I) is inserted. This character, like other
control characters, is invisible -- but it makes a subtle and
significant difference to your file and editing. 

For example, in default mode, press the tab key and then type the word
@b{Test}. "Test" appears at the eighth column. Move your cursor to the
beginning of the word and delete the backward character. The word
doesn't move back just one character, but flushes to the left margin. 
The reason for this behavior is easily explained. In tab default, EMACS
inserts a 'real' tab character when you press the tab key. This
character is inserted at the default position, but NO SPACES are
inserted between the tab character and the margin (or previous tab
character). As you will recall, EMACS only recognizes characters (such
as spaces or letters) and thus when the tab character is removed, the
text beyond the tab is flushed back to the margin or previous tab mark.

This situation changes if you alter the default configuration. The
default value may be changed by entering a numeric argument before
pressing the tab key. As we saw earlier, pressing the @b{META} key and
entering a number allows you to specify how EMACS performs a given
action. In this case, let's specify an argument of 10 and hit the tab
key. 

Now hit the tab key again and type @b{Test}. Notice the word now
appears at the tenth column. Now move to the beginning of the word and
delete the backward character. "Test" moves back by one character. 

EMACS behaves differently in these circumstances because the @b(^I)
@index(tab handling) @i(handle-tab) @index(handle-tab) function deals
with tabbing in two distinct ways. In default conditions, or if the
numeric argument of zero is used, @i(handle-tab) inserts a true tab
character. If, however, a non-zero numeric argument is specified,
@i(handle-tab) inserts the correct number of spaces needed to position
the cursor at the next specified tab position. It does NOT insert the
single tab character and hence any editing functions should take account
of the number of spaces between tabbed columns.

The distance which a true tab character moves the cursor can be
modified by changing the value of the $hardtab environment variable. 
Initially set to 8, this will determine how far each tab stop is placed
from the previous one. (Use the ^XA @i(set)@index(set) command to set
the value of an environment variable).

Many times you would like to take text which has been created using
the tab character and change it to use just spaces. The command
@b(^X^D) @i(detab-region) @index(detab-region) changes any tabs 
in the currently selected region into the right number of spaces so
the text does not change. This is very useful for times when the file
must be printed or transferred to a machine which does not understand
tabs. 

Also, the inverse command, @b(^X^E) @i(entab-region)
@index(entab-region) changes multiple spaces to tabs where possible. 
This is a good way to shrink the size of large documents, especially
with data tables. Both of these commands can take a numeric argument
which will be interpreted as the number of lines to en/detab. 

Another function, related to those above is provided for by the @b(^X^T)
@i(trim-region)@index(trim-region) when invoked will delete any trailing
white space in the selected region. A preceding numeric argument will do
this for that number of lines.
@newpage
@heading(Chapter @value(chapter) Summary)

In Chapter @value(chapter) introduced some of the formatting features of
EMACS. Text-wrap, paragraph reformatting, and tabs were discussed in
some detail. The commands in the following table were covered in the
chapter. 

@begin{verbatim}

@u(Key Binding		Keystroke		    Effect)
add-mode/WRAP		@b{^XM}[WRAP]	Add wrap mode to current buffer

delete-mode/WRAP	@b{^X^M}[WRAP]	Remove wrap mode from current buffer

set-fill-column 	@b{^XF} 	Set fill column to given numeric
					argument  

fill-paragraph		@b{M-Q} 	Logically reformats the current
					paragraph

case-word-upper 	@b{M-U} 	Text from point to end of the
					current word is changed to uppercase

case-word-lower 	@b{M-L} 	Text from point to end of the 
					current word is changed to lowercase

case-word-capitalize	@b{M-C} 	First word (or letter) after the
					point is capitalized

case-region-upper	@b{^X^U}	The current region is uppercased

case-region-lower	@b{^X^L}	The current region is lowercased

handle-tab		@b{^I}		Tab interval is set to the given
					numeric argument

entab-region		@b(^X^E)	Changes multiple spaces to tabs
					characters where possible

detab-region		@b(^X^D)	Changes tab characters to the
					appropriate number of spaces

trim-region		@b(^X^T)	Trims white space from the end
					of the lines in the current region
@end{verbatim}
@chapter(Access to the Outside World)

	EMACS has the ability to interface to other programs and the
environment of the computer outside of itself. It does this through a
series of commands that allow it to talk to the computer's @b(command
processor) @index(command processor) or @b(shell) @index(shell). Just
what this is varies between different computers. Under MSDOS or PCDOS
this is the @b(command.com) @index(command.com) command processor. 
Under UNIX it is the @b(csh) @index(cshell) shell. On the Atari ST is
can be the Mark Williams @b(MSH) or the Beckmeyer shell. In each case,
it is the part of the computer's operating system that is responsible
for determining what programs are executed, and when. 

	The @b(^X!) @i(shell-command) @index(shell-command) command
prompts the user for a command line to send out to the shell to execute.
This can be very useful for doing file listings and changing the
current directory or folder. EMACS gives control to the shell, which
executed the command, and then types @b([END]) and waits for the user to
type a character before redrawing the screen and resuming editing. If
the @i(shell-command) command is used from within the macro language,
there is no pause.

	@b(^X@@) @i(pipe-command) @index(pipe-command) command allows
EMACS to execute a shell command, and if the particular computer allows
it, send the results into a buffer which is automatically displayed on
the screen. The resulting buffer, called "command" can be manipulated
just like any other editing buffer. Text can be copied out of it or
rearranged as needed. This buffer is originally created in @b(VIEW) mode,
so remember to @b(^X^Mview<NL>) in order to change it.

	Many computers provide tools which will allow you to @b(filter)
@index(filter) text, making some modifications to it along the way. A
very common tool is the @b(SORT) program which accepts a file, sorts
it, and prints the result out. The EMACS command, @b(^X#)
@i(filter-buffer)@index(filter-buffer) sends the current buffer through
such a filter. Therefore, if you wished to sort the current buffer on
a system which supplied a sort filter, you would type @b(^X#sort<NL>). 
You can also create your own filters by writing programs and utilities
which read text from the keyboard and display the results. EMACS will
use any of these which would normally be available from the current
shell.

	If you would like to execute another program directly, without
the overhead of an intervening shell, you can use the @b(^X$)
@i(execute-program) @index(execute-program) command. It will prompt you
for an external program and its arguments and attempt to execute it. 
Like when EMACS looks for command files, EMACS will look first in the
HOME directory, then down the execute PATH, and finally in the current
directory for the named program. On some systems, it will automatically
tack the proper extension on the file name to indicate it is a program.
On some systems that don't support this function, @b(^X$) will be
equivalent to @b(^X!) @i(shell-command).

	Sometimes, you would like to get back to the shell and execute
other commands, without losing the current contents of EMACS. The
@b(^XC) @i(i-shell) @index(i-shell) command shells out of EMACS,
leaving EMACS in the computer and executing another command shell. Most
systems would allow you to return to EMACS with the "exit" command. 

	@i(On some systems, mainly advanced versions of UNIX, you can
direct EMACS to "go into the background" with the @b(^XD) suspend-emacs
@index(suspend-emacs) command. This places EMACS in the background
returning you to the original command shell. EMACS can then be returned
to at any time with the "fg" foreground command.)
@newpage
@heading(Chapter @value(chapter) Summary)

In Chapter @value(chapter) introduced different ways to access the
computers shell or command processor from within EMACS. The commands
in the following table were covered in the chapter. 

@begin{verbatim}

@u(Key Binding		Keystroke		    Effect)
execute-program 	@b(^X$) 	Execute an external program
					directly

filter-command		@b(^X#) 	Send the current buffer through
					a shell filter

i-shell 		@b(^XC) 	Escape to a new shell

pipe-command		@b(^X@@)	Send the results of an external
					shell command to a buffer

shell-command		@b(^X!) 	Execute one shell command

suspend-emacs		@b(^XD) 	Place EMACS in the background
					(some UNIX systems only)
@end{verbatim}
@chapter(Keyboard Macroes)

	In many applications, you may need to repeat a series of
characters or commands frequently. For example, a paper may require the
frequent repetition of a complex formula or a long name. You may also
have a series of EMACS commands that you invoke frequently. Keyboard
macroes offer a convenient method of recording and repeating these
commands. 

	Imagine, for example, you are writing a scholarly paper on
@i{Asplenium platyneuron}, the spleenwort fern. Even the dedicated
botanist would probably find it a task bordering on the agonizing to
type @i{Asplenium platyneuron} frequently throughout the paper. An
alternative method is 'record' the name in a keyboard macro. Try it
yourself.

	The command @b{^X(} @i(begin-macro) @index(begin-macro) starts
recording the all the keystrokes and commands you input. After you've
typed it, enter @b{Asplenium platyneuron}. To stop recording, type
@b{^X)} @i(end-macro) @index(end-macro). EMACS has stored all the
keystrokes between the two commands. To repeat the name you've stored,
just enter @b{^XE} @i(execute-macro) @index(execute-macro), and the
name "Asplenium platyneuron" appears. You can repeat this action as
often as you want, and of course as with any EMACS command, you may
precede it with a numerical argument to repeat it many times.

	Because EMACS records keystrokes, you may freely intermix
commands and text. Unfortunately, you can only store one macro at a
time. Thus, if you begin to record another macro, the previously defined
macro is lost. Be careful to ensure that you've finished with one macro
before defining another. If you have a series of commands that you would
like to 'record' for future use, use the procedure facilities detailed
in chapter @ref(macroes).
@newpage
@heading(Chapter @value(chapter) Summary)

Chapter @value(chapter) covered keyboard macroes. You learned how to
record keystrokes and how to repeat the stored sequence. 

@begin{verbatim}
@u(Key Binding		Keystroke		Effect)

start-macro		@b{^X(} 	Starts recording all keyboard input

end-macro		@b{^X)} 	Stops recording keystrokes for macro

execute-macro		@b{^XE} 	Entire sequence of recorded
					keystrokes is replayed
@end{verbatim}
@chapter(MicroEMACS Procedures)
@tag(macroes)
	Procedures, or macroes, are programs that are used to customize
the editor and to perform complicated editing tasks. They may be stored
in files or buffers and may be executed using an appropriate command, or
bound to a particular keystroke. Portions of the standard start-up file
are implemented via procedures, as well as the built in help system. The
@b(M-^E) @i(run) @index(run) command causes named procedures to be executed.
The @i(execute-file) @index(execute-file) command allows you to execute
a procedure stored in a disk file, and the @i(execute-buffer)
@index(execute-buffer) command allows you to execute a procedure stored
in a buffer. Procedures are stored for easy execution by executing files
that contain the store-procedure command. 

	In a command file, the @i(store-procedure)
@index(store-procedure) command takes a string argument which is the
name of a procedure to store. These procedures than can be executed with
the @b(M-^E) @i(run) @index(run) command. Also, giving the name of a
stored procedure within another procedure will executed that named
procedure as if it had been called up with the @i(run) command.

	Some fairly length examples of MicroEMACS procedures can be seen
by examining the standard files that come with EMACS. The @b(emacs.rc)
@index(emacs.rc) file (called @b[.emacsrc]@index[.emacsrc]) under UNIX)
is the MicroEMACS command file which is executed when EMACS is normally
run. It contains a number of different stored procedures along with the
lines to setup and display the Function key window @index(function key
window) and to call up other procedures and command files using function
keys.

	There are many different aspects to the language within
MicroEMACS. Editor commands are the various commands that manipulate
text, buffers, windows, et cetera, within the editor. Directives are
commands which control what lines get executed within a macro. Also
there are various types of variables. Environmental variables both
control and report on different aspects of the editor. User variables
hold string values which may be changed and inspected. Buffer variables
allow text to be placed into variables. Interactive variable allow the
program to prompt the user for information. Functions can be used to
manipulate all these variables. 

@section(Constants)

	All constants and variable contents in EMACS are stored as
strings of characters. Numbers are stored digit by digit as characters.
This allows EMACS to be "typeless", not having different variables types
be legal in different contexts. This has the disadvantage of forcing the
user to be more careful about the context of the statements variables
are placed in, but in turn gives them more flexibility in where they
can place variables. Needless to say, this also allows EMACS's expression
evaluator to be both concise and quick.

	Wherever statements need to have arguments, it is legal to place
constants. A constant is a double quote character, followed by a string
of characters, and terminated by another double quote character. To
represent various special characters within a constant, the tilde (~)
@index(tilde, special use) character is used. The character following the
tilde is interpreted according to the following table:

@begin(verbatim)
@u(Sequence	Result)
~n			EMACS newline character (breaks lines)
~r		^M	carriage return
~l		^J	linefeed
~~		~	tilde
~b		^H	backspace
~f		^L	formfeed
~t		^I	tab
~"		"	quote
@end(verbatim)

	Any character not in the table which follows a tilde will be
passed unmodified. This action is similar to the @b(^Q)
@i(quote-character) command available from the keyboard. 

	EMACS may use different characters for line terminators on
different computers. The ~n combination will always get the proper line
terminating sequence for the current system.

	The double quotes around constants are not needed if the
constant contains no internal white space and it also does not happen to
meet the rules for any other EMACS commands, directives, variables, or
functions. This is reasonable useful for numeric constants.

@section(Variables)

	Variables in MicroEMACS procedures can be used to return values
within expressions, as repeat counts to editing commands, or as text to
be inserted into buffers and messages. The value of these variables is
set using the set @b(^XA) command. For example, to set the current fill
column to 64 characters, the following macro line would be used:

	set $fillcol 64

	or to have the contents of @b(%name) inserted at the point in the
current buffer, the command to use would be:

	insert-string %name

@subsection(Environmental Variables)

	"What good is a quote if you can't change it?"

	These variables are used to change different aspects of the way
the editor works. Also they will return the current settings if used as
part of an expression. All environmental variable names begin with a
dollar sign ($) and are in lower case.

@begin(description)
@index($acount)
$acount@\The countdown of inserted characters until the next save-file.

@index($asave)
$asave@\The number of inserted characters between automatic file-saves
in ASAVE mode.

@index($bufhook)
$bufhook@\The function named in this variable is run when a buffer is
entered. It can be used to implement modes which are specific to a
paricular file or file type.

@index($cbflags)
$cbflags@\Current buffer attribute flags (See appendix G for details).

@index($cbufname)
$cbufname@\Name of the current buffer.

@index($cfname)
$cfname@\File name of the current buffer.

@index($cmdhook)
$cmdhook@\Name of function to run before accepting a command. This is
by default set to @i(nop).

@index($cmode)
$cmode@\Integer containing the mode of the current buffer. (See Appendix F
for values).

@index($curchar)
$curchar@\Ascii value of the character currently at the point.

@index($curcol)
$curcol@\Current column of point in current buffer.

@index($curline)
$curline@\Current line of point in current buffer.

@index($curwidth)
$curwidth@\Number of columns used currently.

@index($curwind)
$curwind@\Current window number.

@index($cwline)
$cwline@\Current display line in current window.

@index($debug)
$debug@\Flag to trigger macro debugging.

@index($deskcolor)
$deskcolor@\Color to use for current desktop, default to BLACK.

@index($diagflag)
$diagflag@\If set to TRUE, diagonal dragging of text and mode lines is
enabled. If FALSE, text and modelines can only be dragged horizontally
or vertically at one time.

@index($discmd)
$discmd@\Controls the echoing of command prompts. Default is TRUE.

@index($disinp)
$disinp@\Controls the echoing of input at the command prompts. Default
is TRUE.

@index($disphigh)
$disphigh@\If set to TRUE, high-bit characters (single byte characters
that are greater than 127 in value) will be displayed in a
pseudo-control format. The characters "^!" will lead off the sequence,
followed by the character stripped of its high bit. Default is FALSE.

@index($exbhook)
$exbhook@\This variable holds the name of a function or macro which is
run whenever you are switching out of a buffer.

@index($fcol)
$fcol@\The current line position being displayed in the first column of
the current window.

@index($fillcol)
$fillcol@\Current fill column.

@index($flicker)
$flicker@\Flicker Flag set to TRUE if IBM CGA set to FALSE for most
others.

@index($fmtlead)
$fmtlead@\lists all formatter command leadin characters. Lines beginning
with these characters will be considered the beginning of paragraphs.

@index($gflags)
$gflags@\Global flags controlling some EMACS internal functions (See
appendix G for details).

@index($gmode)
$gmode@\Global mode flags. (See Appendix F for values).

@index($hardtab)
$hardtab@\Number of spaces between hard tab stops. Normally 8, this can
be used to change indentation only within the editor.@index(tabs)

@index($hjump)
$hjump@\The number in here tells EMACS how many columns to scroll the
screen horizontally when a horizontal scroll is required.

@index($hscroll)
$hscroll@\This flag determines if EMACS will scroll the entire current
window horizontally, or just the current line. The default value, TRUE,
results in the entire current window being shifted left and right when
the cursor goes off the edge of the screen.

@index($kill)
$kill@\This contains the first 127 characters currently in the kill
buffer and can be used to set the contents of the kill buffer.

@index($language)
$language@\[READ ONLY]Contains the name of the language which the
current EMACS's message will display. (Currently EMACS is available in
English, French, Spanish, Latin, Portuguese, Dutch, German, and Pig Latin).

@index($lastkey)
$lastkey@\[READ ONLY]Last keyboard character typed.

@index($lastmesg)
$lastmesg@\[READ ONLY]Contains the text of the last message which
emacs wrote on the command line.

@index($line)
$line@\The current line in the current buffer can be retrieved and
set with this environment variable.

@index($lterm)
$lterm@\Character(s) to write as a line terminator when writing a file
to disk. Default is null, which causes a '\n' character to be written.
Not all operating systems support this.

@index($lwidth)
$lwidth@\[READ ONLY]Returns the number of characters in the current line.

@index($match)
$match@\[READ ONLY]Last string matched in a search.

@index($modeflag)
$modeflag@\Determines if mode lines are currently displayed.

@index($msflag)
$msflag@\If TRUE, the mouse (if present) is active. If FALSE, no mouse
cursor is displayed, and no mouse actions are taken.@index(mouse)

@index($numwind)
$numwind@\The number of windows displayed.

@index($oldcrypt)
$oldcrypt@\Use the old method of encryption (which had a bug in it). 
Default is FALSE.  This variable was dropped from EMACS with version 3.12.

@index($orgrow)
$orgrow@\The desktop row position of current screen.

@index($orgcol)
$orgcol@\The desktop column position of current screen.

@index($pagelen)
$pagelen@\The number of screen lines used currently.

@index($palette)
$palette@\A string used to control the palette register settings on
graphics versions. The usual form consists of groups of three octal
digits setting the red, green, and blue levels.@index(color pallette)

@index($paralead)
$paralead@\A string containing all paragraph start characters.

@index($pending)
$pending@\[READ ONLY]A flag used to determine if there are user keystrokes
waiting to be processed.

@index($popflag)
$popflag@\Use pop-up windows. Default is TRUE.

@index($posflag)
$posflag@\Display the line and column position on the modeline. Default
is FALSE.

@index($progname)
$progname@\[READ ONLY]Always contains the string "MicroEMACS" for
standard MicroEMACS. Could be something else if EMACS is incorporated
as part of someone else's program.

@index($ram)
$ram@\The amount of remaining memory if MicroEMACS was compiled with
RAMSIZE set. A debugging tool.

@index($readhook)
$readhook@\This variable holds the name of a function to execute
whenever a file is read into EMACS. Normally, using the standard
@b(emacs.rc) file, this is bound to a function which places EMACS into
CMODE if the extension of the file read is .c or .h.

@index($region)
$region@\Contains the string of the current region. It will truncate at
the stringsize limit, 255.

@index($replace)
$replace@\The current replace pattern used in replace commands.

@index($rval)
$rval@\This contains the return value from the last subprocess which was
invoked from EMACS.

@index($scrname)
$scrname@\The current screen name.

@index($search)
$search@\The current search pattern used in search and replace commands.

@index($searchpnt)
$searchpnt@\Set the placement of the of the cursor on a successful
search match. $searchpnt = 0 (the default), causes the cursor to be
placed at the end of the matched text on forward searches, and at the
beginning of the text on reverse searches. $searchpnt = 1 causes the
cursor to be placed at the the beginning of the matched text regardless
of the search direction, while $searchpnt = 2 causes the cursor to be
placed at the end.

@index($seed)
$seed@\Integer seed of the random number generator.

@index($softtab)
$softtab@\Number of spaces inserted by EMACS when the handle-tab command
(which is normally bound to the TAB key) is invoked.@index(tabs)

@index($sres)
$sres@\Current screen resolution (CGA, MONO, EGA or VGA on the IBM-PC
driver. LOW, MEDIUM, HIGH or DENSE on the Atari ST1040, NORMAL on most
others).@index(screen resolution)

@index($ssave)
$ssave@\A variable which flags EMACS's method of saving files. If set to
TRUE, EMACS will write all files out to a temporary file, delete the
original, then rename the temporary to the old file name. The default
value of this is TRUE.

@index($sscroll)
$sscroll@\When set to TRUE, EMACS will smoothly scroll windows one line
at a time when cursoring off the ends of the current window. Default is
FALSE.

@index($status)
$status@\[READ ONLY]Status of the success of the last command (TRUE or
FALSE). This is usually used with !force to check on the success of a
search, or a file operation. 

@index($sterm)
$sterm@\This is the character used to terminate search string inputs.
The default for this is the last key bound to @i(meta-prefix).

@index($target)
$target@\Current target for line moves (setting this fools EMACS into
believing the last command was a line move).

@index($time)
$time@\[READ ONLY]Contains a string corresponding to the current date
and time. Usually this is in a form similar to "Mon May 09 10:10:58 1988".
Not all operating systems will support this.

@index($timeflag)
$timeflag@\Flag to determine if the time of day is displayed on the
modeline. Default is FALSE. The time is updated only after a keystroke.

@index($tpause)
$tpause@\Controls the length of the pause to display a matched fence
when the current buffer is in CMODE and a close fence has been typed.

@index($version)
$version@\[READ ONLY]Contains the current MicroEMACS version number.

@index($wchars)
$wchars@\When set, MicroEMACS uses the characters listed in it to
determine if it is in a word or not. If it is not set (the default),
the characters it uses are the upper and lower case letters, and the
underscore.

@index($wline)
$wline@\Number of display lines in current window.

@index($wraphook)
$wraphook@\This variable contains the name of an EMACS function which is
executed when a buffer is in WRAP mode and it is time to wrap. By
default this is bound to @i(wrap-word).

@index($writehook)
$writehook@\This variable contains the name of an EMACS function or
macro which is invoked whenever EMACS attempts to write a file out to
disk. This is executed before the file is written, allowing you to
process a file on the way out.

@index($xpos)
$xpos@\The column the mouse was at the last mouse button press.

@index($yankflag)
$yankflag@\Controls the placement of the cursor after a yank command or
an insert. When $yankflag is FALSE (the default), the cursor is placed
at the end of the yanked or inserted text. When it is TRUE, the cursor
remains at the start of the text.

@index($ypos)
$ypos@\The line which the mouse was on during the last mouse button press.
@end(description)

@subsection(User variables)

	User variables allow you to store strings and manipulate them.
These strings can be pieces of text, numbers (in text form), or the
logical values @b(TRUE) and @b(FALSE). These variables can be combined,
tested, inserted into buffers, and otherwise used to control the way
your macroes execute. At the moment, up to 512 user variables may be in
use in one editing session. All users variable names must begin with a
percent sign (%) and may contain any printing characters. Only the first
10 characters are significant (IE differences beyond the tenth character
are ignored). Most operators will truncate strings to a length of 128
characters. 

@subsection(Buffer Variables)

	Buffer variables are special in that they can only be queried
and cannot be set. What buffer variables are is a way to take text from
a buffer and place it in a variable. For example, if I have a buffer by
the name of RIGEL2, and it contains the text:

@begin(verbatim)
@begin(group)
	Richmond
	Lafayette
	<*>Bloomington		(where <*> is the current point)
	Indianapolis
	Gary
	=* MicroEMACS 3.12 (WRAP) == rigel2 == File: /data/rigel2.txt =====
@end(group)
@end(verbatim)

	and within a command I reference #rigel2, like:

	insert-string #rigel2

	MicroEMACS would start at the current point in the RIGEL2
buffer and grab all the text up to the end of that line and pass that
back. Then it would advance the point to the beginning of the next line.
Thus, after our last command executes, the string "Bloomington" gets
inserted into the current buffer, and the buffer RIGEL2 now looks like
this:

@begin(verbatim)
@begin(group)
	Richmond
	Lafayette
	Bloomington
	<*>Indianapolis 	(where <*> is the current point)
	Gary
	=* MicroEMACS 3.12 (WRAP) == rigel2 == File: /data/rigel2.txt =====
@end(group)
@end(verbatim)

	as you have probably noticed, a buffer variable consists of the
buffer name, preceded by a pound sign (#).

@subsection(Interactive variables)

	Interactive variables are actually a method to prompt the user
for a string. This is done by using an at sign (@@) followed either with
a quoted string, or a variable containing a string. The string is the
placed on the bottom line, and the editor waits for the user to type in
a string. Then the string typed in by the users is returned as the
value of the interactive variable. For example:

@begin(verbatim)
	set %quest "What file? "
	find-file @@%quest
@end(verbatim)

	will ask the user for a file name, and then attempt to find it.
Note also that complex expressions can be built up with these
operators, such as:

@verbatim(set %default "file1"
@@&cat &cat "File to decode[" %default "]: ")

	which prompts the user with the string:

	File to decode[file1]:

@section(Functions)

	Functions can be used to act on variables in various ways. 
Functions can have one, two, or three arguments. These arguments will
always be placed after the function on the current command line. For
example, if we wanted to increase the current fill column by two, using
emacs's set (^XA) command, we would write:

@begin(group)
@begin(verbatim)
	set $fillcol &add $fillcol 2
	 \	\      \      \     \____second operand
	  \	 \	\      \_________first operand
	   \	  \	 \_______________function to execute
	    \	   \_____________________variable to set
	     \___________________________set (^XA) command
@end(verbatim)
@end(group)

	Function names always begin with the ampersand (&) character,
and are only significant to the first three characters after the
ampersand. Functions will normal expect one of three types of
arguments, and will automatically convert types when needed. Different
argument types include:

@begin(description)
<num>@\an ascii string of digits which is interpreted as a numeric value. 
Any string which does not start with a digit or a minus sign (-) will be
considered zero. 

<str>@\An arbitrary string of characters. At the moment, strings are
limited to 128 characters in length. 

<log>@\A logical value consisting of the string "TRUE" or "FALSE". 
Numeric strings will also evaluate to "FALSE" if they are equal to zero,
and "TRUE" if they are non-zero. Arbitrary text strings will have the
value of "FALSE". 
@end(description)

	A list of the currently available functions follows. Functions
are always used in lower case, the uppercase letters in the function
table are the short form of the function (IE &div for &divide).

@begin(verbatim)
Numeric Functions:	(returns <num>)

&ADD		<num> <num>	Add two numbers
&SUB		<num> <num>	Subtract the second number from the first
&TIMes		<num> <num>	Multiply two numbers
&DIVide 	<num> <num>	Divide the first number by the second
				giving an integer result
&MOD		<num> <num>	Return the reminder of dividing the
				first number by the second
&NEGate 	<neg>		Multiply the arg by -1
&LENgth 	<str>		Returns length of string
&SINdex 	<str1> <str2>	Finds the position of <str2> within
				<str1>. Returns zero if not found.
&ASCii		<str>		Return the ascii code of the first
				character in <str>
&RND		<num>		Returns a random integer between 1 and <num>
&ABS		<num>		Returns the absolute value of <num>
&BANd		<num> <num>	Bitwise AND function
&BOR		<num> <num>	Bitwise OR function
&BXOr		<num> <num>	Bitwise XOR function
&BNOt		<num>		Bitwise NOT function

String manipulation functions:	(returns <str>)

&CAT		<str> <str>	Concatenate the two strings to form one
&LEFt		<str> <num>	return the <num> leftmost characters
				from <str>
&RIGht		<str> <num>	return the <num> rightmost characters
				from <str>
&MID		<str> <num1> <num2>
				Starting from <num1> position in <str>,
				return <num2> characters.
&REVerse	<str>		return a string with reversed-ordered
				characters
&UPPer		<str>		Uppercase <str>
&LOWer		<str>		Lowercase <str>
&CHR		<num>		return a string with the character
				represented by ascii code <num>
&GTC				returns a string of characters
				containing a EMACS command input from
				the user
&GTK				return a string containing a single
				keystroke from the user
&ENV		<str>		If the operating system is capable, this
				returns the environment string associated
				with <str>
&BIND		<str>		return the function name bound to the
				keystroke <str>
&XLATE		<str1> <str2> <str3>
&FINd		<str>		Find the named file <str> along the
				path and return its full file specification
				or an empty string if none exists
&TRIM		<str>		Trim the trailing whitespace from a string

Logical Testing functions:	(returns <log>)

&NOT		<log>		Return the opposite logical value
&AND		<log1> <log2>	Returns TRUE if BOTH logical arguments
				are TRUE
&OR		<log1> <log2>	Returns TRUE if either argument
				is TRUE
&EQUal		<num> <num>	If <num> and <num> are numerically
				equal, return TRUE
&LESs		<num1> <num2>	If <num1> is less than <num2>, return
				TRUE.
&GREater	<num1> <num2>	If <num1> is greater than <num2>, return
				TRUE.
&SEQual 	<str1> <str2>	If the two strings are the same, return
				TRUE.
&SLEss		<str1> <str2>	If <str1> is less alphabetically than
				<str2>, return TRUE.
&SGReater	<str1> <str2>	If <str1> is alphabetically greater than
				or equal to <str2>, return TRUE.
&EXIst		<str>		Does the named file <str> exist?

&ISNum		<num>		Is the given argument a legitimate number?

Special Functions:

&GROup		<num>		Return group <num> as set by a MAGIC
				mode search.

&SUPper		<str1> <str2>	Translate the first char in <str1> to
				the first char in <str2> when uppercasing.

&SLOwer		<str1> <str2>	Translate the first char in <str1> to
				the first char in <str2> when lowercasing.

&INDirect	<str>		Evaluate <str> as a variable.
@end(verbatim)

	This last function deserves more explanation. The &IND function
evaluates its argument, takes the resulting string, and then uses it as
a variable name. For example, given the following code sequence:

@begin(verbatim)
	; set up reference table

	set %one	"elephant"
	set %two	"giraffe"
	set %three	"donkey"

	set %index "%two"
	insert-string &ind %index
@end(verbatim)

	the string "giraffe" would have been inserted at the point in
the current buffer. This indirection can be safely nested up to about
10 levels.

@section(Directives)

	Directives are commands which only operate within an executing
procedure, IE they do not make sense as a single command. As such, they
cannot be called up singly or bound to keystroke. Used within command
files, they control what lines are executed and in what order.

	Directives always start with the exclamation mark (!) character
and must be the first non-white space placed on a line. Directives
executed interactively (via the execute-command-line command) will be
ignored. 

@subsection(!ENDM Directive)

	This directive is used to terminate a procedure or macro being
stored. For example, if a file is being executed contains the text:

@begin(verbatim)
	;	Read in a file in view mode, and make the window red

	store-procedure get-red-viewed-file
		find-file @@"File to view: "
		add-mode "view"
		add-mode "red"
	!endm

	print "[Consult procedure has been loaded]"
@end(verbatim)

	only the lines between the store-macro command and the !ENDM
directive are stored in procedure get-red-viewd-file. Both named
procedures and numbered macroes (via the @i(store-macro) command) should
be terminated with this directive.

@subsection(!FORCE Directive)

	When MicroEMACS executes a procedure, if any command fails, the
procedure is terminated at that point. If a line is preceded by a !FORCE
directive, execution continues whether the command succeeds or not. For
example:

@begin(verbatim)
	;	Merge the top two windows

	save-window		;remember what window we are at
	1 next-window		;go to the top window
	delete-window		;merge it with the second window
	!force restore-window	;This will continue regardless
	add-mode "red"
@end(verbatim)
	Often this is used together with the $status environment
variable to test if a command succeeded. For example:
@begin(verbatim)
	set %seekstring @"String to Find: "
	!force search-forward %seekstring
	!if &seq $status TRUE
		print "Your string is Found"
	!else
		print "No such STRING!"
	!endif
@end(verbatim)

@subsection(!IF, !ELSE, and !ENDIF Directives)

	This directive allows statements only to be executed if a
condition specified in the directive is met. Every line following the
!IF directive, until the first !ELSE or !ENDIF directive, is only
executed if the expression following the !IF directive evaluates to a
TRUE value. For example, the following commands creates the portion of a
text file automatically. (yes believe me, this will be easier to
understand then that last explanation....)

@begin(verbatim)
	!if &sequal %curplace "timespace vortex"
		insert-string "First, rematerialize~n"
	!endif
	!if &sequal %planet "earth"	;If we have landed on earth...
		!if &sequal %time "late 20th century"  ;and we are then
			write-message "Contact U.N.I.T."
		!else
			insert-string "Investigate the situation....~n"
			insert-string "(SAY 'stay here Sara')~n"
		!endif
	!else
		set %conditions @@"Atmosphere conditions outside? "
		!if &sequal %conditions "safe"
			insert-string &cat "Go outside......" "~n"
			insert-string "lock the door~n"
		!else
			insert-string "Dematerialize..try somewhen else"
			newline
		!endif
	!endif
@end(verbatim)

@subsection(!GOTO Directive)

	Flow can be controlled within a MicroEMACS procedure using the
!GOTO directive. It takes as an argument a label. A label consists of a
line starting with an asterisk (*) and then an alphanumeric label. Only
labels in the currently executing procedure can be jumped to, and trying
to jump to a non-existing label terminates execution of a procedure. For
example:

@begin(verbatim)
	;Create a block of DATA statements for a BASIC program

		insert-string "1000 DATA "
		set %linenum 1000

	*nxtin
		update-screen		;make sure we see the changes
		set %data @@"Next number: "
		!if &equal %data 0
			!goto finish
		!endif

		!if &greater $curcol 60
			2 delete-previous-character
			newline
			set %linenum &add %linenum 10
			insert-string &cat %linenum " DATA "
		!endif

		insert-string &cat %data ", "
		!goto nxtin

	*finish

		2 delete-previous-character
		newline
@end(verbatim)

@subsection(!WHILE and !ENDWHILE Directives)

	This directive allows you to set up repetitive tasks easily and
efficiently. If a group of statements need to be executed while a
certain condition is true, enclose them with a while loop. For example,

@begin(verbatim)
	!while &less $curcol 70
		insert-string &cat &cat "[" #stuff "]"
	!endwhile
@end(verbatim)

	places items from buffer "item" in the current line until the
cursor is at or past column 70. While loops may be nested and can
contain and be the targets of !GOTOs with no ill effects. Using a while
loop to enclose a repeated task will run much faster than the
corresponding construct using !IFs.

@subsection(!BREAK Directive)

	This lets you abort out of the most executing currently inner
while loop, regardless of the condition. It is often used to abort
processing for error conditions. For example:

@begin(verbatim)
;	Read in files and substitute "begining" with "beginning"

	set %filename #list
	!while &not &seq %filename "<end>"
!force		find-file %filename
		!if &seq $status FALSE
			write-message "[File read error]"
			!break
		!endif
		beginning-of-file
		replace-string "begining" "beginning"
		save-file
		set %filename #list
	!endwhile
@end(verbatim)

	This while loop will process files until the list is exhausted
or there is an error while reading a file.

@subsection(!RETURN Directive)

	The !RETURN Directive causes the current procedure to exit,
either returning to the caller (if any) or to interactive mode. For
example:

@begin(verbatim)
	;	Check the monitor type and set %mtyp

	!if &sres "CGA"
		set %mtyp 1
		!return
	!else
		set %mtyp 2
	!endif

	insert-string "You are on a MONOCHROME machine!~n"
@end(verbatim)
@chapter(Debugging MicroEMACS Procedures)

	@index(debugging)@index($debug)When developing new procedures,
it is very convenient to be able to trace their execution to discover
errors. The $debug environment variable enables procedure debugging.
While this variable is TRUE, emacs will stop at each line it intends to
execute and allow you to view it, and issue a number of different
commands to help determine how the procedure is executing.

	For example, we will step through the procedure which toggles
the function key window off. The first thing to do, is to set $debug,
using the @b(^XA) @i(set) command. Type ^XA and emacs will prompt you on
the command line with "Variable to set: ". Type in "$debug" and press
the enter key. Emacs will then ask "Value: ". Type in "TRUE" (in capital
letters) and press the enter key.

	While macro debugging is enabled (as it is now) emacs will
report each time a variable is assigned a value, by displaying the
variable and its value on the command line. Right now,

@flushleft{((($debug <- TRUE)))}

	appears on the command line to tell you that $debug now has been
assigned the value of TRUE. Press the space bar to continue.

	Now, lets try to debug a macro. Press function key 5 which
normally toggles the function key window. The first thing that appears
is:

@flushleft{<<<[Macro 01]:!if %rcfkeys>>>}

	At this point, emacs is waiting for a command. It is prepared
to see if the user variable %rcfkeys is TRUE, and execute some lines if
they are. Suppose we want to see the value of this variable, type the
letter "e" to evaluate an expression. Emacs will prompt with "EXP: ". 
Type "%rcfkeys" followed by the enter key. Emacs should then respond
with "TRUE" to indicate that the function key window is currently on
screen.

	Press the space bar to allow the !if directive to execute. 
Emacs will decide that it is TRUE, and then display the next command to
execute.

@flushleft{<<<[Macro 01]:!goto rcfoff>>>}

	Notice emacs tells us what procedure we are currently executing
(in this case, the macro bound to execute-macro-1). Press the space bar
again to execute the !goto directive.

@flushleft{<<<[Macro 01]:save-window>>>}

	Emacs is saving the position of the current window so that it
can attempt to return to it after it has brought up the function key window.

[...THIS CHAPTER IS NOT FINISHED...]
@chapter(Key Bindings, What they are and why)

	One of the features which makes MicroEMACS very adaptable is its
ability to use different keystrokes to execute different commands. The
process of changing the particular command a key invokes is called
@i(rebinding)@index(rebinding). This allows us to make the editor
look like other popular editors and programs.

	Each command in MicroEMACS has a name which is used for binding
purposes. For example, the command to move the cursor down one page is
called @i(next-line) and is normally bound to the ^N key. If you
decided that you also wanted to use the ^D key to move the cursor down
one line, you would use the M-K @i(bind-to-key)@index(bind-to-key)
command. EMACS would respond with ": bind-to-key " on the command line
and allow you to type in a command name. Then type in the name of the
command  you want to change, in this case @i(next-line),
followed by the <NL> key. EMACS will then wait for you to type in the
keys you want to activate the named function. Type a single ^D. From
now on, typing ^D will cause EMACS to move down one line, rather than
its original function of deleting characters.

	To find out the name of a command, consult the list of
valid EMACS commands in Appendix B. Also, you can use the ^X?
@i(describe-key)@index(describe-key) command to look up the name of a
command. Type ^X? and then the key to use that command, and EMACS will
show you the name of the command.

	After you have experimented with changing your key bindings, you
may decide that you want to change some bindings permanently. To have
EMACS rebind keys to your pleasure each time you start EMACS, you can
add statements to the end of your startup file (@b(emacs.rc) or
@b(.emacsrc) depending on the system). For example,

bind-to-key next-line ^D

	Notice, that control D character in the startup file is
represented visibly as an uparrow key followed by a capital D. To know
how to represent any keys you want to bind, use the @i(describe-key)
command on the key, and use the sequence that is displayed.

bind-to-key split-current-window FN1

	This example would make function key 1 activate the command
that splits the current window in two. 

	EMACS will let you define a large number of keys, but will report 
"Binding table FULL!" when it runs out of space to bind keys. Normally 
EMACS will allow up to 512 key bindings (including approx. 300 originally 
bound keys).

	If you want to get a current listing of all the commands and
the keys bound to them, use the @i(describe-bindings)
@index(describe-bindings) command. Notice, that this command is not
bound to any keys!

	There are some @index(key bindings, declined) key bindings
that cannot be made without special precautions. Alternative bindings
for ^X, META, ^G, and ^U (which bind respectively to ctlx-prefix,
meta-prefix, abort-command, and universal-argument) must be made before
re-binding ^X, META, ^G, or ^U. The reason is to protect the innocent
user from losing the prefix and other commands inadvertantly.

@appendix(MicroEMACS Command Line Switches and Startup Files)

@index(startup files)
	When EMACS first executes, it always searches for a file,
called @b(.emacsrc) @i(under most UNIX systems) or @b(emacs.rc) @i(on
most other systems) @index(emacs.rc) @index(.emacsrc) which it will
execute as EMACS macroes before it reads in the named source files. This
file normally contains EMACS macroes to bind the function keys to
useful functions and load various useful macroes. The contents of this
file will probably vary from system to system and can be modified by the
user as desired.

	When searching for this file, EMACS looks for it in this order. 
First, it attempts to find a definition for "@b(HOME)" in the
environment. It will look in that directory first. Then it searches
all the directories listed in the "@b(PATH)" environment variable. Then
it looks through a list of predefined standard directories which vary
from system to system. Finally, failing all of these, it looks in the
current directory. This is also the same method EMACS uses to look up
any files to execute, and to find it's help file @b(EMACS.HLP). 
@index(PATH environment variable) @index(HOME environment variable)
@index(Help File)

@index(command line)
@index(switches)
	On computers that call up EMACS via a command line process, such
as MSDOS and UNIX, there are different things that can be added to the
command line to control the way EMACS operates. These can be switches,
which are a dash ('-') followed by a letter, and possible other
parameters, or a startup file specifier, which is an at sign '@@'
followed by a file name.

@begin(description)
@@<file>@\This causes the named file to be executed instead of the
standard emacs.rc file before emacs reads in any other files. More than
one of these can be placed on the command line, and they will be
executed in the order that they appear. 

-C@\The following source files on the command line can be changed (as
opposed to being in VIEW mode). This is mainly used to cancel the
effects of the -v switch used previously in the same command line.

-E@\This flag causes emacs to automatically run the startup file
"error.cmd" instead of emacs.rc. This is used by various C compilers for
error processing (for example, Mark Williams C). @index(error parsing)

-G<num>@\Upon entering EMACS, position the cursor at the <num> line of
the first file.

-I<var> <value>@\Initialize an EMACS variable with <value>. This can be
useful to force EMACS to start in a particular mode. (For example,
invoke EMACS with "emacs -i$sres VGA foo.bar" to edit file foo.bar
in VGA 50 line mode on an IBM-PC).

-K<key>@\This key tells emacs to place the source files in CRYPT
@index(CRYPT mode) mode and read it in using <key> as the encryption
key. If no key is listed immediately after the -K switch, EMACS will
prompt for a key, and not echo it as it is typed. 

-R@\This places EMACS in "restricted mode"@index(restricted mode)
@index(BBS) where any commands allowing the user to read or write any
files other than the ones listed on the command line are disabled. Also
all commands allowing the user access to the operating system are
disabled. This makes EMACS very useful as a "safe" environment for use
within other applications and especially used as a remote editor for a
BBS or electronic bulletin board system.

-S<string>@\After EMACS is started, it automatically searches for
<string> in the first source file.

-V@\This tells EMACS that all the following sources files on the command
line should be in VIEW mode to prevent any changes being made to them.
@end(description)
@appendix(Command Completion)

	Some versions of MicroEMACS will allow you to abbrieviate buffer
names, command names and file names as you enter them. To use this,
type in the first few characters of the name you wish, and then hit
either the space bar, the META key or the TAB key. MicroEMACS will then
attempt to look at the list of all the availible names and if there is
only one which will fit, it will choose that name. If there are several
names that quailify, as many characters as are common to ALL of them
will be entered. If there are no possible matches, the bell will ring
to indicate MicroEMACS can not complete the command.

	For example, if you have several files in your current directory
with the following names:

@begin(verbatim)
	prog1.c
	prog1.obj
	prog1.exe
	prog1.doc
	program.one
	project.one
	test.c
	tes
@end(verbatim)

	and you enter the @b(^X^F) @i(find-file) command, if you type
'p' and then hit the space bar, EMACS will respond by typing the 'r'
that is common to all the above file names begining with 'p'. If you
then type 'ogr' and hit the tab key, EMACS will respond with 'am.one'
and automatically hit the enter key for you.

	If you were to instead type an 'a' and hit the space bar, EMACS
will beep, informing you that there is no possible match.

	If you type a 'te' and hit the space bar, EMACS will then type
the following 's', but it will not automatically enter it because it is
possible you mean to get to the test.c file.

	Buffer name, and command name completion is available in all
versions of MicroEMACS. File name completion is available on UNIX
BSD4.3, the Atari ST, the AMIGA and under MSDOS.
@appendix(MicroEMACS Commands)

	Below is a complete list of the commands in EMACS, the keys
normally used to do the command, and what the command does. Remember,
on some computers there may also be additional ways of using a command
(cursor keys and special function keys for example). 

@begin(verbatim)
@u(Command			Binding 	Meaning)
abort-command		 ^G	This allows the user to abort out of any
				command that is waiting for input

add-mode		 ^XM	Add a mode to the current buffer

add-global-mode 	 M-M	Add a global mode for all new buffers

append-file		 ^X^A	Write a buffer to the end of a file

apropos 		 M-A	List out commands whose name contains
				the string specified

backward-character	 ^B	Move one character to the left

begin-macro		 ^X(	Begin recording a keyboard macro

beginning-of-file	 M-<	Move to the beginning of the file in
				the current buffer

beginning-of-line	 ^A	Move to the beginning of the current line

bind-to-key		 M-K	Bind a key to a function

buffer-position 	 ^X=	List the position of the cursor in the
				current window on the command line

case-region-lower	 ^X^L	Make a marked region all lower case

case-region-upper	 ^X^U	Make a marked region all upper case

case-word-capitalize	 M-C	Capitalize the following word

case-word-lower 	 M-L	Lower case the following word

case-word-upper 	 M-U	Upper case the following word

change-file-name	 ^XN	Change the name of the file in the
				current buffer

change-screen-size	(none)	Change the number of lines of the screen
				currently being used

change-screen-width	(none)	Change the number of columns of the
				screen currently being used

clear-and-redraw	 ^L	Clear the physical screen and redraw it

clear-message-line	(none)	Clear the command line

copy-region		 M-W	Copy the currently marked region into
				the kill buffer

count-words		 M-^C	Count how many words, lines and
				characters are in the current marked region

ctlx-prefix		 ^X	Change the key used as the ^X prefix

cycle-screens		 A-C	Bring the rearmost screen to front

delete-blank-lines	 ^X^O	Delete all blank lines around the cursor

delete-buffer		 ^XK	Delete a buffer which is not being
				currently displayed in a window

delete-mode		 ^X^M	Turn off a mode in the current buffer

delete-global-mode	 M-^M	Turn off a global mode

delete-next-character	 ^D	Delete the character following the cursor

delete-next-word	 M-D	Delete the word following the cursor

delete-other-windows	 ^X1	Make the current window cover the entire
				screen

delete-previous-character^H	Delete the character to the left of the
				cursor

delete-previous-word	 M-^H	Delete the word to the left of the cursor

delete-screen		 A-D	Delete a screen

delete-window		 ^X0	Remove the current window from the screen

describe-bindings	(none)	Make a list of all legal commands

describe-functions	(none)	Make a list of all legal functions

describe-variables	(none)	Make a list of all environment
				and user variables

describe-key		 ^X?	Describe what command is bound to a
				keystroke sequence

detab-region		 ^X^D	Change all tabs in a region to the
				equivalent spaces

display 		^XG	Prompts the user for a variable and
				displays its current value

dump-variables		 none	Places into a buffer the current values
				of all environment and user variables

end-macro		 ^X)	stop recording a keyboard macro

end-of-file		 M->	Move cursor to the end of the current buffer

end-of-line		 ^E	Move to the end of the current line

end-of-word		(none)	Move the point just past the end of
				the current word

entab-region		 ^X^E	Change multiple spaces to tabs where
				possible

exchange-point-and-mark  ^X^X	Move cursor to the last marked spot,
				make the original position be marked

execute-buffer		(none)	Execute a buffer as a macro

execute-command-line	(none)	Execute a line typed on the command
				line as a macro command

execute-file		(none)	Execute a file as a macro

execute-macro		 ^XE	Execute the keyboard macro (play back
				the recorded keystrokes)
execute-macro-<n>	(none)	Execute numbered macro <N> where <N> is
				an integer from 1 to 40

execute-named-command	 M-X	Execute a command by name

execute-procedure	 M-^E	Execute a procedure by name

execute-program 	^X$	Execute a program directly (not through
				an intervening shell)

exit-emacs		 ^X^C	Exit EMACS. If there are unwritten,
				changed buffers EMACS will ask to confirm

fill-paragraph		 M-Q	Fill the current paragraph

filter-buffer		 ^X#	Filter the current buffer through an
				external filter

find-file		 ^X^F	Find a file to edit in the current window

find-screen		 A-F	Bring the named screen to front,
				creating it if needed

forward-character	 ^F	Move cursor one character to the right

goto-line		 M-G	Goto a numbered line

goto-mark		 M-^G	Goto a numbered mark

goto-matching-fence	 M-^F	Goto the matching fence

grow-window		 ^X^	Make the current window larger

handle-tab		 ^I	Insert a tab or set tab stops

hunt-forward		 A-S	Hunt for the next match of the last
				search string

hunt-backward		 A-R	Hunt for the last match of the last
				search string

help			 M-?	Read EMACS.HLP into a buffer and display it

i-shell 		 ^XC	Shell up to a new command processor

incremental-search	 ^XS	Search for a string, incrementally

indent-region		 M-(	Indent the current region one tab

insert-file		 ^X^I	insert a file at the cursor in the
				current file

insert-space		 ^C	Insert a space to the right of the cursor

insert-string		(none)	Insert a string at the cursor

kill-paragraph		 M-^W	Delete the current paragraph

kill-region		 ^W	Delete the current marked region, moving
				it to the kill buffer

kill-to-end-of-line	 ^K	Delete the rest of the current line

label-function-key	(none)	Set the text on a function key label
				(HP150 only)

list-buffers		 ^X^B	List all existing buffers

list-screens		 A-B	List all existing screens

macro-to-key		 M-^K	Bind a key to a macro

meta-prefix		 <ESC>	Key used to precede all META commands

mouse-move-down 	 MSa

mouse-move-up		 MSb

mouse-resize-screen	 MS1

mouse-region-down	 MSe

mouse-region-up 	 MSf

move-window-down	 ^X^N	Move all the lines in the current window down

move-window-up		 ^X^P	Move all the lines in the current window up

name-buffer		 M-^N	Change the name of the current buffer

narrow-to-region	 ^X<	hides all text not in the current region

newline 		 ^M	Insert a <NL> at the cursor

newline-and-indent	 ^J	Insert a <NL> at the cursor and indent
				the new line the same as the preceding line

next-buffer		 ^XX	Bring the next buffer in the list into
				the current window

next-line		 ^N	Move the cursor down one line

next-page		 ^V	Move the cursor down one page

next-paragraph		 M-N	Move cursor to the next paragraph

next-window		 ^XO	Move cursor to the next window

next-word		 M-F	Move cursor to the beginning of the
				next word

nop			(none)	Does nothing

open-line		 ^O	Open a line at the cursor

overwrite-string	(none)	Overwrite a string at the cursor

pipe-command		 ^X@@	Execute an external command and place
				its output in a buffer

pop-buffer		(none)	Display a buffer temporarily, paging

previous-line		 ^P	Move cursor up one line

previous-page		 ^Z	Move cursor up one page

previous-paragraph	 M-P	Move back one paragraph

previous-window 	 ^XP	Move the cursor to the last window

previous-word		 M-B	Move the cursor to the beginning of the
				word to the left of the cursor

print			(none)	Display a string on the command line
				(a synonim to write-message)

query-replace-string	 M-^R	Replace all of one string with another
				string, interactively querying the user

quick-exit		 M-Z	Exit EMACS, writing out all changed buffers

quote-character 	 ^Q	Insert the next character literally

read-file		 ^X^R	Read a file into the current buffer

redraw-display		 M-^L	Redraw the display, centering the
				current line

remove-mark		(none)	Remove a numbered mark

resize-window		 ^XW	Change the number of lines in the
				current window

restore-window		(none)	Move cursor to the last saved window

replace-string		 M-R	Replace all occurrences of one string
				with another string from the cursor
				to the end of the buffer

reverse-incremental-search^XR	Search backwards, incrementally

run			 M-^E	Execute a named procedure

save-file		 ^X^S	Save the current buffer if it is changed

save-window		(none)	Remember current window (to restore later)

scroll-next-up		 M-^Z	Scroll the next window up

scroll-next-down	 M-^V	Scroll the next window down

search-forward		 ^S	Search for a string

search-reverse		 ^R	Search backwards for a string

select-buffer		 ^XB	Select a buffer to display in the
				current window

set			 ^XA	Set a variable to a value

set-encryption-key	 M-E	Set the encryption key of the current buffer

set-fill-column 	 ^XF	Set the current fill column

set-mark			Set the mark

shell-command		 ^X!	Causes an external shell to execute
				a command

show-files		(none)	Pop up a list of files from the
				specified directory

shrink-window		 ^X^Z	Make the current window smaller

source			(none)	Execute a file as a macro

split-current-window	 ^X2	Split the current window in two

store-macro		(none)	Store the following macro lines to a
				numbered macro

store-procedure 	(none)	Store the following macro lines to a
				named procedure

transpose-characters	 ^T	Transpose the character at the cursor
				with the character to the left

trim-region		 ^X^T	Trim any trailing white space from a region

unbind-key		 M-^K	Unbind a key from a function

undent-region		 M-)	Remove a leading indent from a region

universal-argument	 ^U	Execute the following command 4 times

unmark-buffer		 M-~	Unmark the current buffer (so it is
				no longer changed)

update-screen		(none)	Force a screen update during macro execution
 
view-file		 ^X^V	Find a file,and put it in view mode
 
widen-from-region	 ^X>	restores hidden text (see narrow-to-region)

wrap-word		(none)	Wrap the current word, this is an
				internal function
        
write-file		 ^X^W	Write the current buffer under a new
				file name

write-message		(none)	Display a string on the command line

yank			 ^Y	yank the kill buffer into the current
				buffer at the cursor
@end(verbatim)
@appendix(MicroEMACS Bindings)

	Below is a complete list of the key bindings used in MicroEMACS.
This can be used as a wall chart reference for MicroEMACS commands.

@begin(verbatim)
@center(@b[Default Key Bindings for MicroEmacs 3.12])

 ^A   Move to start of line	      ESC A   Apropos (list some commands)
 ^B   Move backward by characters     ESC B   Backup by words
 ^C   Insert space		      ESC C   Initial capitalize word
 ^D   Forward delete		      ESC D   Delete forward word
 ^E   Goto end of line		      ESC E   Reset Encryption Key
 ^F   Move forward by characters      ESC F   Advance by words
 ^G   Abort out of things	      ESC G   Go to a line
 ^H   Backward delete		      
 ^I   Insert tab/Set tab stops
 ^J   Insert <NL>, then indent		    
 ^K   Kill forward		      ESC K   Bind Key to function
 ^L   Refresh the screen	      ESC L   Lower case word
 ^M   Insert <NL>		      ESC M   Add global mode
 ^N   Move forward by lines	      ESC N   Goto End paragraph
 ^O   Open up a blank line	      
 ^P   Move backward by lines	      ESC P   Goto Begining of paragraph
 ^Q   Insert literal		      ESC Q   Fill current paragraph
 ^R   Search backwards		      ESC R   Search and replace
 ^S   Search forward		      ESC S   Suspend (BSD only)
 ^T   Transpose characters		       
 ^U   Repeat command four times       ESC U   Upper case word
 ^V   Move forward by pages	      ESC V   Move backward by pages
 ^W   Kill region		      ESC W   Copy region to kill buffer
 ^Y   Yank back from killbuffer       ESC X   Execute named command
 ^Z   Move backward by pages	      ESC Z   Save all buffers and exit

 ESC ^C   Count words in region       ESC ~   Unmark current buffer
 ESC ^E   Execute named procedure
 ESC ^F   Goto matching fence	      ESC !   Reposition window
 ESC ^H   Delete backward word	      ESC <   Move to start of buffer
 ESC ^K   Unbind Key from function    ESC >   Move to end of buffer
 ESC ^L   Reposition window	      ESC .   Set mark
 ESC ^M   Delete global mode	      ESC space    Set mark
 ESC ^N   Rename current buffer       ESC rubout   Delete backward word
 ESC ^R   Search & replace w/query	  rubout   Backward delete
 ESC ^S   Source command file
 ESC ^V   Scroll next window down
 ESC ^W   Delete Paragraph
 ESC ^X   Execute command line
 ESC ^Z   Scroll next window up

 ^X <	Narrow-to-region	   ^X ?   Describe a key
 ^X >	Widen-from-region	   ^X !   Run 1 command in a shell
 ^X =	Show the cursor position   ^X @@   Pipe shell command to buffer
 ^X ^	Enlarge display window	   ^X #   Filter buffer thru shell filter
 ^X 0	Delete current window	   ^X $   Execute an external program
 ^X 1	Delete other windows	   ^X (   Begin macro
 ^X 2	Split current window	   ^X )   End macro
				   ^X A   Set variable value
 ^X ^B	 Display buffer list	   ^X B   Switch a window to a buffer
 ^X ^C	 Exit MicroEMACS	   ^X C   Start a new command processor
 ^X ^D	 Detab line		   ^X D   Suspend MicroEMACS (BSD4.2 only)
 ^X ^E	 Entab line		   ^X E   Execute macro
 ^X ^F	 Find file		   ^X F   Set fill column
 ^X ^I	 Insert file
				   ^X K   Delete buffer
 ^X ^L	 Lower case region
 ^X ^M	 Delete Mode		   ^X M   Add a mode
 ^X ^N	 Move window down	   ^X N   Rename current filename
 ^X ^O	 Delete blank lines	   ^X O   Move to the next window
 ^X ^P	 Move window up 	   ^X P   Move to the previous window
 ^X ^R	 Get a file from disk	   ^X R   Incremental reverse search
 ^X ^S	 Save current file	   ^X S   Incremental forward search
 ^X ^T	 Trim line		   (Incremental search
 ^X ^U	 Upper case region		  not always available)
 ^X ^V	 View file
 ^X ^W	 Write a file to disk	   ^X W   resize Window
 ^X ^X	 Swap "." and mark	   ^X X   Use next buffer
 ^X ^Z	 Shrink window		   ^X Z   Enlarge display window

@u(Usable Modes)
WRAP	 Lines going past right margin "wrap" to a new line
VIEW	 Read-Only mode where no modifications are allowed
CMODE	 Change behavior of some commands to work better with C
EXACT	 Exact case matching on search strings
OVER	 Overwrite typed characters instead of inserting them
CRYPT	 Current buffer will be encrypted on write, decrypted on read
MAGIC	 Use regular expression matching in searches
ASAVE	 Save the file every 256 inserted characters
SPELL	 Invoke MicroSPELL to check for spelling errors
REP	 Similar to OVER, handles double-byte characters and tabs differently

WHITE/CYAN/MAGENTA/YELLOW/BLUE/RED/GREEN/BLACK/GREY/GRAY/LRED/LGREEN/LYELLO/LBLUE/LMAGENTA/LCYAN	Sets foreground color
white/cyan/magenta/yellow/blue/red/green/black/grey/gray/lred/lgreen/lyello/lblue/lmagenta/lcyan	Sets background color
@end(verbatim)
@newpage
@appendix(Numeric Arguments to Commands)
@index(numeric arguments)

	In general, preceding a MicroEMACS command with a numeric argument
@b(n) causes the command to be executed @b(n) times. However, there
are a great many commands for which this has no effect, simply because
it would make no sense for the command to be executed more than once. 
There are also commands that take advantage of the numeric arguments to
alter their behavior subtly or unsubtly. The following is a list of
these commands. Commands that are not affected at all by numeric
arguments are listed afterwards.

@begin(description)
@index(backward-character)
backward-character@\A negative argument invokes @i(forward-character).

@index(change-screen-size)
change-screen-size@\With no arguments, the number of rows defaults to
the largest. Otherwise, set the screen size to @b(n).

@index(change-screen-width)
change-screen-width@\With no arguments, the number of columns defaults to
the largest. Otherwise, set the screen width to @b(n).

@index(clear-and-redraw)
clear-and-redraw@\With an argument, centers the window around the
current cursor position.

@index(delete-next-character)
delete-next-character@\A negative argument invokes
@i(delete-previous-character).

@index(delete-next-word)
delete-next-word@\With an argument of 0, will not delete the whitespace
trailing the deleted word. A negative argument will cause nothing to
happen.

@index(delete-previous-character)
delete-previous-character@\A negative argument invokes
@i(delete-next-character).

@index(delete-previous-word)
delete-previous-word@\An negative or zero argument will cause nothing to
happen.

@index(detab-region)
detab-region@\Without an argument, @i(detab-region) changes hard tabs to
spaces in the lines between the mark and the cursor. With an argument
@b(n), the commands detab @b(n) lines - forward if @b(n) is positive,
backwards if not.

@index(end-of-word)
end-of-word@\A negative argument invokes @i(next-word).

@index(entab-region)
entab-region@\Without an argument, @i(entab-region) changes spaces to
hard tabs in the lines between the mark and the cursor. With an
argument @b(n), the commands entab @b(n) lines - forward if @b(n) is
positive, backwards if not.

@index(exchange-point-and-mark)
exchange-point-and-mark@\Swap the current cursor position and mark
number @b(n). Without an argument, @b(n) defaults to 0.

@index(exit-emacs)
exit-emacs@\Providing a numeric argument @b(n) causes two things to
happen. First, no checking for modified buffers will occur. Second,
MicroEMACS exits with a status of @b(n).

@index(forward-character)
forward-character@\A negative argument invokes @i(backward-character).

@index(goto-line)
goto-line@\An argument @b(n) will be taken as the line number to go to. 
Without an argument, you will be asked for a line number. In either
case, the line number must be 1 or greater.

@index(goto-mark)
goto-mark@\Go to mark number @b(n). Without an argument, @b(n)
defaults to 0.

@index(grow-window)
grow-window@\A negative argument invokes @i(shrink-window). An argument
of 0 causes no action.

@index(handle-tab)
handle-tab@\Without an argument, @i(handle-tab) deals with the tab
character, whether it should be a single "hard" tab, or expanded as
spaces. With an argument @b(n), $softtab is set to @b(n).

@index(hunt-backward)
hunt-backward@\The command will hunt @b(n) times. The command will
report failure if it cannot find its pattern the @b(nth) time, even if
has found an occurrence of the pattern before number @b(n). A negative
argument invokes @i(hunt-forward).

@index(hunt-forward)
hunt-forward@\The command will hunt @b(n) times. The command will
report failure if it cannot find its pattern the @b(nth) time, even if
has found an occurrence of the pattern before number @b(n). A negative
argument invokes @i(hunt-backward).

@index(kill-to-end-of-line)
kill-to-end-of-line@\With no argument @b(n), the command deletes all
characters to the end of the line. If it is already at the end of the
line, it will delete the newline. With a positive @b(n) as an
argument, the command will delete @b(n) complete lines, newline
character and all, starting from the cursor. With @b(n) equal to zero,
the command deletes all text from the cursor to the beginning of the
line, but will not delete past the newline character. A negative @b(n)
is illegal.

@index(list-buffers)
list-buffers@\With a numeric argument, INVISIBLE buffers are also
listed.

@index(move-window-down)
move-window-down@\With a negative argument, invokes @i(move-window-up).

@index(move-window-up)
move-window-up@\With a negative argument, invokes @i(move-window-down).

@index(next-buffer)
next-buffer@\With an argument @b(n), the @b(nth) buffer after the
current one is selected, and read in if necessary. Any buffers in
between the current buffer and the target buffer that have not yet been
read in are read.

@index(next-line)
next-line@\A negative argument invokes @i(previous-line).

@index(next-page)
next-page@\Without an argument, the window is scrolled forward by a
full page. With an argument @b(n), the window is scrolled forwards by
@b(n) lines. The cursor is placed on the upper left hand corner.
Negative arguments invoke @i(previous-page).

@index(next-paragraph)
next-paragraph@\A negative argument invokes @i(previous-paragraph).

@index(next-window)
next-window@\With a positive argument @b(n), the @b(nth) window from
the top becomes the working window. With a negative argument, the
@b(nth) window from the bottom becomes the working window.

@index(next-word)
next-word@\A negative argument invokes @i(previous-word).

@index(pop-buffer)
pop-buffer@\Without an argument, the buffer is simply displayed in its
pop-up screen. With an argument, the buffer is not only displayed, but
also given the attribute INVISIBLE.

@index(previous-line)
previous-line@\A negative argument invokes @i(next-line).

@index(previous-page)
previous-page@\Without an argument, the window is scrolled backward by a
full page. With an argument @b(n), the window is scrolled backwards by
@b(n) lines. The cursor is placed on the upper left hand corner.
Negative arguments invoke @i(next-page).

@index(previous-paragraph)
previous-paragraph@\A negative argument invokes @i(next-paragraph).

@index(previous-window)
previous-window@\With a positive argument @b(n), the @b(nth) window from
the bottom becomes the working window. With a negative argument, the
@b(nth) window from the top becomes the working window.

@index(previous-word)
previous-word@\A negative argument invokes @i(next-word).

@index(query-replace-string)
query-replace-string@\With a numeric argument, @b(n) occurrences of the
search string may be replaced, depending upon the user's response. The
count is based on the number of occurrences found, not the number of
positive responses from the user.

@index(quick-exit)
quick-exit@\Saves all modifed buffers, and exits with a status of @b(n).

@index(redraw-display)
redraw-display@\With no argument, or when @b(n) is 0, the window
is adjusted so that the cursor is in the center. When @b(n) is
positive, the window is adjusted so that the cursor is on the @b(nth)
line of the screen. When @b(n) is negative, the window is adjusted so
that the cursor is on the last line of the window, regardless of the
magnitude of @b(n).

@index(remove-mark)
remove-mark@\Remove mark number @b(n). Without an argument, @b(n)
defaults to 0. 

@index(replace-string)
replace-string@\Will replace @b(n) occurrences of the search string with
the replacement string. Otherwise, with no argument, all occurrences
from the cursor position to the end of file are replaced.

@index(resize-window)
resize-window@\Requires an argument which must be positive.

@index(scroll-next-down)
scroll-next-down@\A negative argument invokes @i(scroll-next-up).

@index(scroll-next-up)
scroll-next-up@\A negative argument invokes @i(scroll-next-down).

@index(search-forward)
search-forward@\The command will search @b(n) times. The command will
report failure if it cannot find its pattern the @b(nth) time, even if it
has found an occurrence of the pattern before number @b(n). A negative
argument invokes @i(search-reverse).

@index(search-reverse)
search-reverse@\The command will search @b(n) times. The command will
report failure if it cannot find its pattern the @b(nth) time, even if
has found an occurrence of the pattern before number @b(n). A negative
argument invokes @i(search-forward).

@index(select-buffer)
select-buffer@\Without an argument, the buffer is simply displayed in
the window. With an argument, the buffer is not only displayed, but
also given the attribute INVISIBLE.

@index(set)
set@\If using the @i(set) command interactively, preceding the command with
a numeric argument then makes it unecessary for the command to ask for
the variable's value (it will still ask for the variable's name). If
used in a command line, then the command

@begin(verbatim)
	set <variable name> <number>
@end(verbatim)

is identical to

@begin(verbatim)
	<number> set <variable name>
@end(verbatim)

@index(set-fill-column)
set-fill-column@\With an argument, the fill column is set to @b(n). The
default argument is 1.

@index(set-mark)
set-mark@\Set mark number @b(n). Without an argument, @b(n) defaults to
0. 

@index(shrink-window)
shrink-window@\A negative argument invokes @i(grow-window). An argument
of 0 causes no action.

@index(split-current-window)
split-current-window@\With @b(n) = 1, the new upper window becomes the
current window. Any other numeric argument makes the new lower
window the current window. With no argument, the current window becomes
the new upper or lower window depending upon whether the cursor was in
the upper or lower half of the old window.

@index(store-macro)
store-macro@\Since macroes are numbered, a numeric argument must be
provided. These numbered macroes are being phased out in preference for
named macroes.

@index(store-procedure)
store-procedure@\If the command is provided a numeric argument, it will
assume that @i(store-macro) is actually being called.

@index(trim-region)
trim-region@\Without an argument, @i(trim-region) removes spaces and
tabs from the end of the lines between the mark and the cursor. With an
argument @b(n), the commands trim @b(n) lines - forward if @b(n) is
positive, backwards if not.
@end(description)
@appendixsection(Commands unaffected by numeric arguments.)
@begin(col3)
abort-command
add-global-mode
add-mode
append-file
apropos
back-from-tag-word
begin-macro
beginning-of-file
beginning-of-line
bind-to-key
buffer-position
case-region-lower
case-region-upper
change-file-name
clear-message-line
copy-region
count-words
cycle-screens
delete-blank-lines
delete-buffer
delete-global-mode
delete-mode
delete-other-windows
delete-screen
delete-window
describe-bindings
describe-functions
describe-key
describe-variables
display
end-macro
end-of-file
end-of-line
execute-command-line
execute-program
fill-paragraph
filter-buffer
find-file
find-screen
goto-matching-fence
help
i-shell
incremental-search
insert-file
kill-region
macro-to-key
mouse-move-down
mouse-move-up
mouse-region-down
mouse-region-up
mouse-resize-screen
name-buffer
narrow-to-region
nop
pipe-command
print
re-tag-word
read-file
restore-window
reverse-incremental-search
save-file
save-window
set-encryption-key
shell-command
suspend-emacs
tag-word
transpose-characters
unbind-key
unmark-buffer
update-screen
view-file
widen-from-region
wrap-word
write-file
write-message
@end(col3)
@newpage
@appendix(Supported machines)

	The following table lists all the hardware/compilers for which I
currently support MicroEMACS. This is not exclusive of all machines
which MicroEMACS will run on, but I have either run it myself, or had a
first hand report of it running.

@begin(verbatim)
@u(Hardware	OS		Compiler	Comments)
VAX 780 	UNIX V5 	native
		UNIX V7 	native
		BSD 4.2 	native		job control supported
		VMS		native		SMG & ANSI support

SUN		SUNOS 3 & 4	native
				gcc

NCR Tower	UNIX V5 	native

IBM-RT PC	BSD 4.3 	native
		AIX		native

HP9000		UNIX V5 	native

Fortune 32:16	UNIX V7 	native

IBM-PC		MSDOS		LATTICE 3	Large CODE/Large DATA
		 2.0 & 3.2	AZTEC 3.4e	Large CODE/Large DATA
				TURBO C 2.0	LARGE memory model
				MSC 6.0
				*MWC 86
		SCO XENIX	native

HP150		MSDOS		Lattice 2.15	Function key labels
				Turbo C 2.0		for the touch screen

HP110		MSDOS		Lattice 2.15
				Aztec 3.4e
				Turbo C 2.0

*Data General 10
		MSDOS		Lattice 2.1  Texas Instruments Professional
		MSDOS		Lattice 2.15

Amiga		Intuition	Lattice 3.03
				Aztec 3.6

ST520		TOS		Mark Williams C Spawns under MSH
				Lattice 3.1	(no shell commands)

Fujitsu FMR	MSDOS		MSC 6.0
   series

NEC 9800	MSDOS		Turbo 2.0	Function key support
   series			MSC 6.0

HP3000 series	MPE		native

@u[Systems to be supported (IE some code is already written:)]
Macintosh	System 7	Lightspeed C

*means that I do not own or have access to the listed compiler and/or
 machine and must rely upon others to help support it. 
@end(verbatim)
@newpage
@appendix(Function Keys)

	All environments now support a set of machine independant
bindings for function keys. Below is a list of these bindings (not all
of these are supported on all systems).

@begin(verbatim)
			Function keys in MicroEmacs

	function	Function	^function	Alt-function
 f1)	  FN1		 S-FN1		  FN^1		  A-FN1
 f2)	  FN2		 S-FN2		  FN^2		  A-FN2
 f3)	  FN3		 S-FN3		  FN^3		  A-FN3
 f4)	  FN4		 S-FN4		  FN^4		  A-FN4
 f5)	  FN5		 S-FN5		  FN^5		  A-FN5
 f6)	  FN6		 S-FN6		  FN^6		  A-FN6
 f7)	  FN7		 S-FN7		  FN^7		  A-FN7
 f8)	  FN8		 S-FN8		  FN^8		  A-FN8
 f9)	  FN9		 S-FN9		  FN^9		  A-FN9
f10)	  FN0		 S-FN0		  FN^0		  A-FN0

home)	  FN<				  FN^<
CsUp)	  FNP				  FN^P
PgUp)	  FNZ				  FN^Z
CsLf)	  FNB				  FN^B
 5  )
CsRt)	  FNF				  FN^F
 End)	  FN>				  FN^>
CsDn)	  FNN				  FN^N
PgDn)	  FNV				  FN^V
 Ins)	  FNC				  FN^C
 Del)	  FND				  FN^D
@end(verbatim)
@newpage
@appendix(Machine Dependent Notes)

	This appendix lists some notes specific to individual
implementations of MicroEMACS. Every attempt has been made to allow
EMACS to be identical on all machines, but we have also tried to take
advantage of function keys, cursor keys, mice, and special screen modes
where possible.

@appendixsection(IBM-PC/XT/AT and its clones)

	The IBM-PC family of computers is supported with a variety of
different display adapters. EMACS will attempt to discover what adapter
is connected and use the proper driver for it. Below is a list of the
currently supported video adapters:

@begin(verbatim)
@u(Adapter			$sres		Original mode used)
Monochrome Graphics Adapter	MONO		MONO
Color Graphics Adapter		CGA		CGA
				CGA40		CGA40
Enhanced Graphics Adapter	EGA		CGA
Video Graphics Adapter		VGA		CGA
				VGA12
@end(verbatim)

	If a driver for a Microsoft compatable mouse is installed on the
system, EMACS will use the mouse in text mode and allow the user all the
standard mouse functions. The mouse cursor will appear to be a block of
color in the color opposite of it's background.

	EMACS also takes advantage of various function keys and the keys
on the keypad on an IBM-PC. The function keys are initially not bound
to any particular functions (except by the emacs.rc startup file), but
the keypad keys do default to the following:

@begin(verbatim)
@u(Keypad key	Function)
Home		beginning-of-file
CSRS UP 	previous-line
Pg Up		previous-page
CSRS LEFT	backward-character
CSRS RIGHT	forward-character
End		end-of-file
CSRS DOWN	next-line
Pg Dn		Next-page
@end(verbatim)

	All these special keys are indicated in EMACS macroes by use of
the @b(FN) prefix. Below is a list of many of the keys and the codes
used to specify them. Also the codes may be gotten by using the
describe-key (^X ?) command on the suspect key.

@flushleft(@b[Compiling under TURBO C])

	To compile MicroEMACS under TURBO C, set the TURBO integrated
environment with the following options:

	Memory model		LARGE
	Floating point		NONE
	Default char type	UNSIGNED
	Data alignment		BYTE
	Merge duplicate strings ON
	Standard stack frame	off
	Test stack overflow	off

	Optimize for			SIZE
	Use register optimization	ON
	Register optimization		ON
	Jump optimization		ON

	Initialize segments	OFF
	Stack warnings		OFF

	Names: Code names
		Segment name	*
@newpage
@appendixsection(HP 150)

	This machine from Hewlett Packard is very unusual for an MSDOS
machine. It has a touch screen and is very function key oriented. An
additional command, @i(label-function-key)@index(label-function-key)
allows you to place labels on the on screen function key labels. A
numeric argument indicates which function key to label (one through
eight) and then the program prompts for a 16 character label, which will
be used as two lines of eight characters. To label function key three
with "save file" from a macro, you would use:

@verbatim(3 label-function-key "save	file")

	Notice the 4 spaces after "save". This forces "file" to begin on
the second line of the label.
@newpage
@appendixsection(Atari 520/1040ST)

	The ATARI ST family of computers have a dual personality. They
may use either a monochrome or a color screen. EMACS supports two
screen resolutions on each monitor. 

@center(@b[NOTE])

@quotation(When you set MicroEMACS up on your system, please remember to
install it on the desktop as a GEM application. If you have EMACS set
as a TOS application, the mouse will not function properly, and EMACS
will alert you to this problem by beeping the bell.)

@begin(verbatim)
@u(Monitor $sres size #color $palette format)
Color	LOW	40x25	16	000111222333444555666777
	MEDIUM	80x25	4	000111222333
Mono	HIGH	80x25	2	000
	DENSE	80x50	2	000
@end(verbatim)

	The $palette environment variable can be used to change what
color is associated with each color name. With a color monitor, each
group of three digits indicates an octal number specifying the RED,
GREEN and BLUE levels of that color. Each color digit can vary from 0
to 7. For example, the initial setting of $palette in LOW resolution is:

@begin(verbatim)
	000700070770007707077777

	which broken up is:

	000 700 070 770 007 707 077 777

	which means:

	000	Black
	700	Red
	070	Green
	770	Yellow
	007	Blue
	707	Magenta
	077	Cyan
	777	White
@end(verbatim)

	Also the mouse buttons are bound to mouse functions as
described in the chapter about mice. The cursor keys and the function
keys are bound similarly to IBM-PC.

	Files generated by EMACS on the ATARI ST have a single return
character at the end of each line, unlike the desktop files which want
to have two returns. This makes it display files strangely from GEM's
[SHOW] option, but makes the files port to other computers much nicer.
When compiling MicroEMACS, the ADDCR symbol in @b(estruct.h) will cause
emacs to generate line ending sequences compatible with GEM.

	Currently, when operating under the Mark Williams MSH program,
EMACS can shell out and perform external commands. This capability will
be added later for the Beckmeyer shell and under GEMDOS.
@newpage
@appendixsection(Amiga 1000)

	The Commodore AMIGA 1000 version of MicroEMACS does fully
support the mouse, window resizing and the close gadget. It runs in
medium resolution, using the colors defined for the workbench. 

@center(Note about Compiling MicroEMACS)

@begin(quotation)
	If you are compiling the sources on the AMIGA to produce an
executable image, and you are using the Lattice compiler, be sure to
give the CLI command 'STACK 40000' before compiling to make sure the
compiler has sufficient stack space to successfully complete
compilation.
@end(quotation)
@newpage
@appendixsection(UNIX V5, V7, and BSD4.[23])

	MicroEMACS under UNIX utilizes the @b(TERMCAP) @index(termcap)
library to provide machine independent screen functions. Make sure that
termcap is available and properly set on your account before attempting
to use MicroEMACS. 

	Under systems which support job control, you can use the
@b(^XD) @i(suspend-emacs) @index(suspend-emacs) command to place EMACS
into the background. This carries a much smaller overhead than bringing
up a new shell under EMACS. EMACS will properly redraw the screen when
you bring it back to the foreground.

	If the symbol VT100 has been set to 1 in the @i(estruct.h)
options file, EMACS will recognize the key sequence <ESC>[ as the lead
in sequence for the FN function key prefix.

	With the addition of some very machine/operating system specific
code, EMACS can prevent two or more people from modifying the same file
at the same time. @index(file locking) The upper level of a set of
functions to provide file locking exist in the source file @b(LOCK.C). 
It requires two machine specific functions written and linked into EMACS
for it to operate properly. 

@begin(verbatim)
	char *dolock(fname)

	char *fname;

	dolock() locks a file, preventing others from modifying it. If
	it succeeds, it returns NULL, otherwise it returns a pointer to
	a string in the form "LOCK ERROR: explanation".

	char *undolock(fname)

	char *fname;

	undolock() unlocks a file, allowing others to modifying it. If
	it succeeds, it returns NULL, otherwise it returns a pointer to
	a string in the form "LOCK ERROR: explanation".
@end(verbatim)
@newpage
@appendixsection(DEC VMS operating system)

@flushleft(@b[TERMINALS])

	Depending upon the options set in ESTRUCT.H, MicroEMACS uses
either the capabilities of VMS SMG, working with any terminal that is
defined in SMGTERMS.TXT or TERMTABLE.TXT (see your SMG manual for more
information), or the ANSI escape sequences. Full keyboard support,
including function keys, is provided for VT100 and VT200 series
compatible terminals. Mouse support is provided under the ANSI version
only at this time. Mouse support is provided for the VSII workstation's
VT220 terminal emulator, and other terminal emulators that use the same
escape sequences for mouse control. (There is some partial support for
the BBN BitGraph mouse sequences in the sources, but this is not yet
complete). Terminals may have up to 100 lines and 160 columns. 

	The maximum terminal size is 256 columns and 72 rows. If you
run MicroEMACS on a terminal that is larger than this, MicroEMACS will
reduce it to these limits while you are editing.

@flushleft(@b[Flow control])
	Some terminals will require the use of XON/XOFF flow control
when used with MicroEMACS. When XON/XOFF flow control is used, you
will not be able to use functions bound to ^S or ^Q, and should use
bind-to-key to put these functions on other keys. MicroEMACS does not
change the flow control characteristics of your terminal line while it
is running. If your terminal requires flow control, you should:

	$ SET TERM/HOSTSYNC/TTSYNC

	before entering MicroEMACS. If you are on a VSII emulated
workstation terminal, are using the SSU multi-session protocol (VT330
and VT340 with SSU enabled), or are certain that your terminal does not
require XON/XOFF flow control, you should

	$ SET TERM /HOSTSYNC/NOTTSYNC

	This will allow you to use ^S and ^Q for MicroEMACS commands.
Note that if you are using a VSII with VWS V3.2 or later, you must
leave the /HOSTSYNC enabled in order for the cross/session cut and
paste capability to work properly.


@flushleft(@b[KEYBOARD])

	The VMS version understands the LK201 functions of VT200
series, vt300 series, and compatible terminals and terminal emulators,
and allows you to bind to them as function keys. In addition, the
VT100 numeric keypad, in application mode, is available as function
keys. MicroEMACS will only put the keypad into application mode for
you if the KEYPAD option is set in ESTRUCT.H. In this situation,
MicroEmacs will detect your kepad's state, and restore it to that state
upon exiting. If MicroEMACS has not been compiled with this option,
you may still put the keypad into application mode by issuing the
command "SET TERM /APPLICATION" before entering MicroEMACS. 

@begin(verbatim)
@u(VT200 keys)

Note that F1 through F5 are local function keys on DEC terminals.

F6         = FN6	FIND = FNS
FN7        = FN7	INSERT = FNC
F8         = FN8	REMOVE = FND
F9         = FN9	SELECT = FN@@
F10        = FN0	PREV = FNZ
F11        = S-FN1	NEXT = FNV
F12        = S-FN2	Arrow Up = FNP
F13        = S-FN3	Arrow Down = FNN
F14        = S-FN4	Arrow Right = FNF
HELP (F15) = S-FN5	Arrow Left = FNB
DO (F16)   = S-FN6
F17        = S-FN7
F18        = S-FN8
F19        = S-FN9
F20        = S-FN0

@u(VT100 and VT200 numeric keypad in application mode)

PF1 = FN^1	PF2 = FN^2	PF3 = FN^3	PF4   = FN^4
7   = A-7	8   = A-8	9   = A-9	-     = A--
4   = A-4	5   = A-5	6   = A-6	,     = A-,
1   = A-1	2   = A-2	3   = A-3	ENTER = A-E
0   = A-0	.   = A-.
@end(verbatim)

@center(@b[WARNING])

@begin(quotation)
	The VMS version contains code for interpreting function keys
that are sent as Ansi sequences that begin with the ESC character. 
Because of this, MicroEMACS cannot process an incoming ESC until it
knows what character follows it. This can cause problems with
terminating search and replace strings. If you use ESC as the
meta-prefix character (which is the default) you must type one
additional keystroke following ESC before emacs will recognize that you
have edited the search command prompt, and are continuing. (The
additional character is processed normally be MicroEMACS, it is NOT
discarded.)

	MicroEMACS must wait long enough for the network delay
that might be involved between seeing the ESC and seeing the
characters that follow it. If holding down one of the arrow keys causes
characters to drop into your file, then you may want to alter the delay
yourself. The logical variable MICROEMACS$SHORTWAIT may be set to vary
that delay. The default delay is 400ms (4 tenths of a second). The
equivalent value in MICROEMACS$SHORTWAIT is 4000000.
@end(quotation)

@flushleft(@b[Special case for BBN BItGraph])

	If you are using the BBN BitGraph, execute the following commands
before entering MicroEMACS, and you will get mouse support:

@begin(verbatim)
	$ esc[0,8] = 27
	$ microemacs$mouse_enable == esc+":5;6;L"+esc+":0;63;;;;;;;;;9;16;c"
	$ microemacs$mouse_disable == esc+":5;1;L"+esc+":0;0c"
	$ exit
@end(verbatim)

	Do NOT do this for any other terminals.

@flushleft(@b[Search List for EMACS.RC])

	VMS MicroEMACS will first search logical name MICROEMACS$LIB:,
then SYS$LOGIN:, then the current directory, and finally
"sys$sysdevice:[vmstools]" when looking for startup files or help files.

	Please use MICROEMACS$LIB:, and allow the secondary search of
[vmstools] to become archaic. If desired, MICROEMACS$LIB may be
defined to be a VMS search list that first searches a user directory,
and then a system directory. 

	Generally, you should create a private directory where you keep
all your .CMD files, and in your LOGIN.COM $DEFINE a logical name to
point to this area.

	In addition to whatever commands you have in your EMACS.RC file,
one command you should certainly include is "set $ssave FALSE". The
"safe save" mechanism, which writes a buffer to a temporary file,
deletes the old version of a file, and then moves the temporary file to
its permanent name, works wonderfully on most systems, but makes no
sense on VMS, which maintains older versions of a file.

@flushleft(@b[Using MicroEMACS as a subprocess])
	MicroEmacs can now be kept in a subprocess. You can arrange to
start emacs only once in a job, and to re-attach to it each time you
want to use it. This is optional. To use this feature, install
MicroEMACS in the following way:

@begin(verbatim)
1. MicroEMACS contains two images. ME.EXE is a small program for
    starting and stopping the Emacs subprocess. The source for ME.
    is in ME.C, and should not be linked into MESHR.EXE. MESHR.EXE
    is the actual MicroEMACS image. The name "MESHR" is required for
    MAIL/NOTES support, see next section for details.

2. Make sure that the SYS$SHARE search list includes MESHR.EXE. If you
   don't have the privilages to move MESHR.EXE into SYS$SHARE, you
   can $ DEFINE the MESHR logical name to be the full name and location of
   the MESHR.EXE program. For example, you could store all of these
   programs in the MICROEMACS$LIB: search list, and say:

		$ DEFINE MESHR microemacs$lib:meshr.exe

3. Put ME.EXE in MICROEMACS$LIB and the following line in your LOGIN.COM:

		$ me :== $microemacs$lib:me

4. Put a line in your EMACS.RC that will

	    bind-to-key suspend-emacs ^C  ; use your usual exit-emacs key
@end(verbatim)

	Now, use the "$ ME" command to invoke microemacs. Subseqeuent
invocations in the same job will re-use the existing subprocess. You
can use the full capabilty of the microemacs command line in the first
and in all subsequent invocations of ME.

	WARNING:

	MicroEMACS will ALWAYS read in new copies of any files you
specify on the command line, even if you are already editing it. If
you edit a file a second time with the same MicroEMACS, you will get a
NEW buffer with ANOTHER copy of the file. The old buffer is still
there also. It is easy, in this situation, to accidently edit in a
WRONG BUFFER, and if you write out an obsolete buffer, you will lose
earlier edits!

	This is considered a bug and may be fixed in a later version of
MicroEMACS. To avoid this situation, do not specify a file on the
command line if MicroEMACS already has that file in a buffer. Use the
"find-file" MicroEMACS command instead.


	@b(Using MICROEMACS with MAIL and NOTES:)

	With VMS V5 and later versions, the MAIL interface to
Microemacs is much simplified. With VMS V5, the MESHR.EXE image does
NOT have to be installed as a known image to be used as a callable
editor from MAIL. Therefore, to use MicroEMACS as your VMS MAIL
editor, simply add the following lines to your LOGIN.COM:

@begin(verbatim)
		$ DEFINE MAIL$EDIT CALLABLE_ME
		$ MAIL :== MAIL/EDIT
@end(verbatim)

	and make sure that the SYS$SHARE search list includes
MESHR.EXE. If you don't have privs or permission to move MESHR.EXE
into SYS$SHARE, you can $ DEFINE the MESHR logical name to be the full
name and location of the MESHR.EXE program. For example, you could
store all of these programs in the MICROEMACS$LIB: search list, and
say:

		$ DEFINE MESHR microemacs$lib:meshr.exe

	Note that this is the same location as is required for using kept
MicroEMACS.

	To abort sending a message, exit MicroEMACS without writing out
the mail message file.

	To use MicroEMACS as your VAX NOTES editor, issue the following
command to VAX NOTES:

		NOTES> SET PROFILE/EDIT=(ME,CALL)

	Note, if you are still in the dark ages of VMS V4, you will
have to either install MESHR as a known image, or following the
original "Second way" instructions given in the existing appendix F.6
of the older MicroEMACS manual (previous to version 3.10).

@flushleft(@b[Second way, as described in older versions])

	In the event that you cannot get your system manager to INSTALL
MicroEMACS as known image, you can use the following technique:

@begin(verbatim)
1. In MICROEMACS$LIB:MEMAIL.COM, put the following command file:

$! Use on VAX/VMS as MAIL$EDIT for using MicroEMACS as mail editor.
$ if "''P1'" .NES. "_NL:" then if "''P1'" .NES. "" then copy 'P1' 'P2'
$ define/user sys$input sys$output
$ me 'P2'
$ exit

This file may have come with your MicroEMACS kit.

2. In your LOGIN.COM, put the following lines:

$	me :== $MICROEMACS$LIB:MESHR.EXE ! Assumes meshr.exe is there
$	define mail$edit microemacs$lib:me_edit.com

3. In NOTES, give the command

NOTES> SET PROFILE/EDIT=(@@MicroEMACS$lib:me_edit.com,SPAWN)

@flushleft(@b[System messages and EMACS])
MicroEMACS will intercept system broadcast messages and display them
on the message line after any input from the user.  These message are
stored in an INVISIBLE buffer named [-messages-].  To view these at your
convenience, use the following procedure:

@begin(verbatim)
;
; Show any system messages MicroEMACS may have intercepted.
; The numeric prefix of pop-buffer ensures its invisibility.
;
store-procedure "Show_messages"
	1 pop-buffer "[-messages-]"
!endm
@end(verbatim)

@flushleft(@b[Building MicroEMACS for VMS])

The configuration options are set in file estruct.h:

- Under the category of "Machine/OS definitions", set VMS to "1" and all
others to "0". 

- Under "Compiler definitions", set all selections to "0". Selecting
VMS implies that you are using VAXC.

- Under "Special keyboard definitions", be sure "VT100" is set to "0". 
This option is not required for the VMS version, it is for other
systems using ANSI terminal support. VMS in combination with SMG or
ANSI already handles the special characteristics of Ansi keyboards.

- Under "Terminal Output definitions", set either ANSI or SMG to "1"
and all others to "0". As stated previously, only ANSI supports the
mouse at this time.

- Under "Configuration options", you may select as you wish, with the
following notes:

    - COLOR	support does not exist for VMS, even when using
		color workstations.
    - MOUSE	support should be enabled if you have any VSII
		workstations. Only supported under the ANSI driver.
    - KEYPAD	support recognises whether your keypad is already
		in application mode or not, and puts your keypad
		in its correct state on exit.
    - XNONOFF	automatically allows you to use control-S or
		control-Q in MicroEMACS, by disabling the TTSYNC
		characteristic. This option should not be set if
		MicroEMACS might be used on DecStations or VT100s.
		It also should not be used with slow terminals or
		terminal emulators connected to fast terminal lines.
    - RMSIO	support should absolutely be used. This option
		allows the writing and reading of files in VMS's
		variable-length format, as opposed to STREAM-LF,
		and cuts down on file writing and reading time by
		approximately two thirds.
    - OPTMEM	support may be used on VMS versions 5.0 and higher.
		It substitutes the C library's memory allocation
		calls for the native VAX calls, and gives a speed
		improvement.
@end(verbatim)

	If you have MMS, you can use the supplied DESCRIP.MMS to build
MicroEMACS. Otherwise, the command file MEMAKE.COM has been provided.
These files assume that you are using SMG as your terminal driver. If
you are using ANSI, then you must replace SMG with ANSI in the command
and opt files. If you do not have MMS or are missing MEMAKE.COM,
simply compile each module with "CC", and link with the command:

	$ LINK MESHR/OPTION/SHARE

	Note that the executable filename must end in "SHR" in order
for MicroEMACS to be used as a callable editor from MAIL or NOTES. 
(Method 1 above.)

	If you edit any of the Emacs sources, note that any global or
external data must be declared as "noshare" in order for the VMS
callable editor support to work properly. This applies to all global
data used in the VMS version, but not to routines or to "static "data. 
The "noshare" declaration is #define'd away on non-VMS systems. If you
fail to do this, VMS will not allow you to INSTALL MicroEMACS as a
sharable library.
@newpage
@appendix(Mode Flags)

	The two environment variables, $cmode and $gmode, contain a
number the corresponds to the modes set for the current buffer and
the editor as a whole. These are encoded as the sum of the following
numbers for each of the possible modes:

@begin(verbatim)
WRAP	  1		Word wrap
CMODE	  2		C indentation and fence match
SPELL	  4		Interactive spell checking (Not Implemented Yet)
EXACT	  8		Exact matching for searches
VIEW	 16		Read-only buffer
OVER	 32		Overwrite mode
MAGIC	 64		Regular expressions in search
CRYPT	128		Encryption mode active
ASAVE	256		Auto-save mode
@end(verbatim)

	So, if you wished to set the current buffer to have CMODE,
EXACT, and MAGIC on, and all the others off, you would add up the values
for those three, CMODE 2  +  EXACT 8  +  MAGIC 64 = 74, and use a
statement like:

set $cmode 74

	or, use the binary or operator to combine the different modes:

set $cmode &bor &bor 2 8 64

@flushleft(@big[Internal Flags])

	Some of the ways EMACS controls its internal functions can be
modified by the value in the $gflags@index($gflags) environment
variable. Each bit in this variable will be used to control a
different function.

@begin(verbatim)
GFFLAG		1	If this bit is set to zero, EMACS will not
			automatically switch to the buffer of the
			first file after executing the startup macroes.
GFSDRAW		2	If this bit is set to one, supress redraw events.
@end(verbatim)

@flushleft(@big[Current buffer flags])

	The $cbflags@index($cbflags) environment variable allows the
user to modify some of the characteristics of the current buffer. The
various characteristics are encoded as the sum of the following
numbers:

@begin(verbatim)
BFINVS		1	Internal invisible buffer
BFCHG		2	Changed since last write
BFTRUNC 	4	buffer was truncated when read
BFNAROW 	8	buffer has been narrowed
@end(verbatim)

	Only the invisible and changed flags can be modified by setting
the $cbflags variable. The truncated file and narrowed flags are read
only.



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