The authoritative guide to the Falcon video hardware

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         THE AUTHORITATIVE GUIDE TO THE FALCON VIDEO HARDWARE

                       BY AURA AND ANIMAL MINE


[ translator's note: This is the  English translation of the excellent
German document on the Falcon video  registers  by the members of Aura
and Animal Mine. It was completed about  2  years ago, but I have only
just received permission from Aura to publish the translation - thanks
BDC! - so here it is at last. The ASCII version should be available on
the disk itself for  reference  use.  It  has  been  reformatted to 72
columns to allow viewing on the  ST  shell  (!) except in places where
such formatting is not possible.
   Incidentally, this document is for  serious code-heads only. Ituses
several dozen acronyms, so it's a  good  idea  to have a pen and paper
handy when reading! ]




**********************************************************************
                      V I D E O - R E G I S T E R S
**********************************************************************

$FFFF8200 [R/W] ********
$FFFF8201 [R/W] 76543210  .............................. VIDEO-BASE HI
                      [ Writing to this clears Video-Address Lo-Byte ]
$FFFF8202 [R/W] ********
$FFFF8203 [R/W] 76543210 ............................... VIDEO-BASE MI
                      [ Writing to this clears Video-Address Lo-Byte ]
$FFFF8204 [R/W] ********
$FFFF8205 [R/W] 76543210  ................... VIDEO-ADDRESS-COUNTER HI
$FFFF8206 [R/W] ********
$FFFF8207 [R/W] 76543210  ................... VIDEO-ADDRESS-COUNTER MI
$FFFF8208 [R/W] ********
$FFFF8209 [R/W] 76543210  ................... VIDEO-ADDRESS-COUNTER LO
$FFFF820A [R/W] _______0  .................................. SYNC-MODE
                      ||
                      |+--Synchronisation [ 0:internal / 1:external ]
                      +---Vertical frequency [ Read-only bit ]
                          [ Monochrome monitor:0 / Colour monitor:1 ]
$FFFF820B [R/W] ________
$FFFF820C [R/W] ********
$FFFF820D [R/W] 7654321_  .............................. VIDEO-BASE LO
                     Video address must be a multiple of four in
                     bitplane modes
$FFFF820E [R/W] _______0  ............................. LINE-OFFSET HI
$FFFF820F [R/W] 76543210  ......................................... LO
                          [ Line-Offset measured in words! ]
$FFFF8210 [R/W] ______10  .............................. LINE-WIDTH HI
$FFFF8211 [R/W] 76543210  ..........................................LO
                          [ Line-Width measured in words! ]
$FFFF8212 [R/W] ********
$FFFF8213 [R/W] ********
$FFFF8214 [R/W] ********
$FFFF8215 [R/W] ********
$FFFF8216 [R/W] ********
$FFFF8217 [R/W] ********
$FFFF8218 [R/W] ********
$FFFF8219 [R/W] ********
$FFFF821A [R/W] ________
$FFFF821B [R/W] ________
$FFFF821C [R/W] ********
$FFFF821D [R/W] ********
$FFFF821E [R/W] ********
$FFFF821F [R/W] ********
$FFFF8220 [R/W] ********
$FFFF8221 [R/W] ********
$FFFF8222 [R/W] ********
$FFFF8223 [R/W] ********
$FFFF8224 [R/W] ********
$FFFF8225 [R/W] ********
$FFFF8226 [R/W] ********
$FFFF8227 [R/W] ********
$FFFF8228 [R/W] ********
$FFFF8229 [R/W] ********
$FFFF822A [R/W] ________
$FFFF822B [R/W] ________
$FFFF822C [R/W] ********
$FFFF822D [R/W] ********
$FFFF822E [R/W] ********
$FFFF822F [R/W] ********
$FFFF8230 [R/W] ********
$FFFF8231 [R/W] ********
$FFFF8232 [R/W] ********
$FFFF8233 [R/W] ********
$FFFF8234 [R/W] ********
$FFFF8235 [R/W] ********
$FFFF8236 [R/W] ********
$FFFF8237 [R/W] ********
$FFFF8238 [R/W] ********
$FFFF8239 [R/W] ********
$FFFF823A [R/W] ________
$FFFF823B [R/W] ________
$FFFF823C [R/W] ********
$FFFF823D [R/W] ********
$FFFF823E [R/W] ********
$FFFF823F [R/W] ********
$FFFF8240 [R/W] ____3210  ............................ ST COLOR $00 HI
                    ||||
                    ++++--Red intensity [ Order of bits : 0321 ]
$FFFF8241 [R/W] 76543210  .............................ST COLOR $00 LO
                ||||||||
                ||||++++--Blue intensity [ Order of bits : 0321 ]
                ++++------Green intensity [ Order of bits: 0321 ]
$FFFF8242 [R/W] ____3210  ............................ ST COLOR $01 HI
$FFFF8243 [R/W] 76543210  ..........................................LO
$FFFF8244 [R/W] ____3210  ............................ ST COLOR $02 HI
$FFFF8245 [R/W] 76543210  ..........................................LO
$FFFF8246 [R/W] ____3210  ............................ ST COLOR $03 HI
$FFFF8247 [R/W] 76543210  ..........................................LO
$FFFF8248 [R/W] ____3210  ............................ ST COLOR $04 HI
$FFFF8249 [R/W] 76543210  ..........................................LO
$FFFF824A [R/W] ____3210  ............................ ST COLOR $05 HI
$FFFF824B [R/W] 76543210  ..........................................LO
$FFFF824C [R/W] ____3210  ............................ ST COLOR $06 HI
$FFFF824D [R/W] 76543210  ..........................................LO
$FFFF824E [R/W] ____3210  ............................ ST COLOR $07 HI
$FFFF824F [R/W] 76543210  ..........................................LO
$FFFF8250 [R/W] ____3210  ............................ ST COLOR $08 HI
$FFFF8251 [R/W] 76543210  ..........................................LO
$FFFF8252 [R/W] ____3210  ............................ ST COLOR $09 HI
$FFFF8253 [R/W] 76543210  ..........................................LO
$FFFF8254 [R/W] ____3210  ............................ ST COLOR $0A HI
$FFFF8255 [R/W] 76543210  ..........................................LO
$FFFF8256 [R/W] ____3210  ............................ ST COLOR $0B HI
$FFFF8257 [R/W] 76543210  ..........................................LO
$FFFF8258 [R/W] ____3210  ............................ ST COLOR $0C HI
$FFFF8259 [R/W] 76543210  ..........................................LO
$FFFF825A [R/W] ____3210  ............................ ST COLOR $0D HI
$FFFF825B [R/W] 76543210  ..........................................LO
$FFFF825C [R/W] ____3210  ............................ ST COLOR $0E HI
$FFFF825D [R/W] 76543210  ..........................................LO
$FFFF825E [R/W] ____3210  ............................ ST COLOR $0F HI
$FFFF825F [R/W] 76543210  ..........................................LO
$FFFF8260 [R/W] ______10  .............................. ST-SHIFT-MODE
                      ||  [ Writing to this alters Line-Width and
                      ||                          Video Control ]
                      ||  Video-Mode Control Bits:      <>%10   =%10
                      ||                       $FF8210 $FF82C2 $FF82C2
                      00--4 planes/320 Pixels=> $0050   $0000   $0005
                      01--2 planes/640 Pixels=> $0050   $0004   $0009
                      10--1 plane /640 Pixels=> $0028   $0006   $0008
                      11--? Resrvd/320 Pixels=> $0050   $0000   $0000
                          [ Writing to this can turn on STe modes: if
                          Bits 10/8/4 of FALCON-SHIFT=0, STE-Palette
                          is selected and Base Offset is raised to 64
                          video-clock cycles. ]
$FFFF8261 [R/W] ________
$FFFF8262 [R/W] ________
$FFFF8263 [R/W] ________
$FFFF8264 [R/W] ________  ................................ H-SCROLL HI
                    ||||  [ Shadow register for $FFFF8265 ]
                    ++++--Pixel shift [ 0:normal / 1..15:Left shift ]
                          [ Change in line-width NOT required ]
$FFFF8265 [R/W] ____3210  .................................H-SCROLL LO
                    ||||
                    ++++--Pixel [ 0:normal / 1..15:Left shift ]
                          [ Change in line-width NOT required ]
$FFFF8266 [R/W] _____210  ....................... FALCON-SHIFT-MODE HI
                     |||
                     ||+--True Colour mode [ 0:Off / 1:On ]
                     |+---Overlay mode [ 0:Off / 1:On ]
                     +----Monochrome 2-colour [ 0:Off / 1:On ]
$FFFF8267 [R/W] 76543210  ....................... FALCON-SHIFT-MODE LO
                ||||||||
                ||||++++--16-Colour Bank for Falcon mode
                ||||      0-15: Colour bank choice from 256-colour
                ||||            table in 16 colour multiples
                |||+------8 Bitplane mode [ 0:Off / 1:On ]
                ||+-------Vertical sync [ 0:internal / 1:external ]
                |+--------Horizontal sync [ 0:internal / 1:external ]
                +---------??Unused??
                          [ Writing to this switches on FALCON modes
                            and Falcon palette is switched on. If
                            Bits 10/8/4=0 then 16-colour mode
                            activated ]

$FFFF8268 [R/W] ________
$FFFF8269 [R/W] ________
$FFFF826A [R/W] ________
$FFFF826B [R/W] ________
$FFFF826C [R/W] ________
$FFFF826D [R/W] ________
$FFFF826E [R/W] ________
$FFFF826F [R/W] ________
$FFFF8270 [R/W] ________
$FFFF8271 [R/W] ________
$FFFF8272 [R/W] ________
$FFFF8273 [R/W] ________
$FFFF8274 [R/W] ________
$FFFF8275 [R/W] ________
$FFFF8276 [R/W] ________
$FFFF8277 [R/W] ________
$FFFF8278 [R/W] ________
$FFFF8279 [R/W] ________
$FFFF827A [R/W] ________
$FFFF827B [R/W] ________
$FFFF827C [R/W] ________
$FFFF827D [R/W] ________
$FFFF827E [R/W] ________
$FFFF827F [R/W] ________
$FFFF8280 [R/W] _______0  ................. HORIZONTAL-HOLD-COUNTER HI
$FFFF8281 [R/W] 76543210  ......................................... LO
                          [ Write access has no effect ]
$FFFF8282 [R/W] _______0  ................... HORIZONTAL-HOLD-TIMER HI
$FFFF8283 [R/W] 76543210  ......................................... LO
$FFFF8284 [R/W] _______0  ................. HORIZONTAL-BORDER-BEGIN HI
$FFFF8285 [R/W] 76543210  ......................................... LO
$FFFF8286 [R/W] _______0  ................... HORIZONTAL-BORDER-END HI
$FFFF8287 [R/W] 76543210  ......................................... LO
$FFFF8288 [R/W] ______10  ................ HORIZONTAL-DISPLAY-BEGIN HI
                      |
                      +-----HDB offset: graphic display begins in the
                            0: 1st Half-line
                            1: 2nd Half-line
$FFFF8289 [R/W] 76543210  ......................................... LO
$FFFF828A [R/W] _______0  .................. HORIZONTAL-DISPLAY-END HI
$FFFF828B [R/W] 76543210  ......................................... LO
$FFFF828C [R/W] _______0  ................... HORIZONTAL-SYNC-START HI
$FFFF828D [R/W] 76543210  ......................................... LO
$FFFF828E [R/W] _______0  ........................... HORIZONTAL-FS HI
$FFFF828F [R/W] 76543210  ......................................... LO
                          if Video-Control Bit 4 = 1:
                          Controls for how long the Hysnc impulses of
                          the previous half-line should be held after
                          the next half-line starts (affects only the
                          middle 5 HSync impulses.) Otherwise no
                          ascertainable function as yet. [See below
                          for explanation]


$FFFF8290 [R/W] _______0  ........................... HORIZONTAL-EE HI
$FFFF8291 [R/W] 76543210  ......................................... LO
                          if Video-Control Bit 4 = 1:
                          (see above), but only affects the first and
                          last 5 HSync impulses. Otherwise no
                          ascertainable function as yet.
$FFFF8292 [R/W] ________
$FFFF8293 [R/W] ________
$FFFF8294 [R/W] ________
$FFFF8295 [R/W] ________
$FFFF8296 [R/W] ________
$FFFF8297 [R/W] ________
$FFFF8298 [R/W] ________
$FFFF8299 [R/W] ________
$FFFF829A [R/W] ________
$FFFF829B [R/W] ________
$FFFF829C [R/W] ________
$FFFF829D [R/W] ________
$FFFF829E [R/W] ________
$FFFF829F [R/W] ________
$FFFF82A0 [R/W] _____210  .............. VERTICAL-FREQUENCY-COUNTER HI
$FFFF82A1 [R/W] 76543210  ......................................... LO
                          [ Write access has no effect ]
$FFFF82A2 [R/W] _____210  ................ VERTICAL-FREQUENCY-TIMER HI
$FFFF82A3 [R/W] 76543210  ......................................... LO
$FFFF82A4 [R/W] _____210  ................... VERTICAL-BORDER-BEGIN HI
$FFFF82A5 [R/W] 76543210  ......................................... LO
$FFFF82A6 [R/W] _____210  ..................... VERTICAL-BORDER-END HI
$FFFF82A7 [R/W] 76543210  ......................................... LO
$FFFF82A8 [R/W] _____210  .................. VERTICAL-DISPLAY-BEGIN HI
$FFFF82A9 [R/W] 76543210  ......................................... LO
$FFFF82AA [R/W] _____210  .................... VERTICAL-DISPLAY-END HI
$FFFF82AB [R/W] 76543210  ......................................... LO
$FFFF82AC [R/W] _____210  ..................... VERTICAL-SYNC-START HI
$FFFF82AD [R/W] 76543210  ......................................... LO
$FFFF82AE [R/W] ________
$FFFF82AF [R/W] ________
$FFFF82B0 [R/W] ________
$FFFF82B1 [R/W] ________
$FFFF82B2 [R/W] ________
$FFFF82B3 [R/W] ________
$FFFF82B4 [R/W] ________
$FFFF82B5 [R/W] ________
$FFFF82B6 [R/W] ________
$FFFF82B7 [R/W] ________
$FFFF82B8 [R/W] ________
$FFFF82B9 [R/W] ________
$FFFF82BA [R/W] ________
$FFFF82BB [R/W] ________
$FFFF82BC [R/W] ________
$FFFF82BD [R/W] ________
$FFFF82BE [R/W] ________
$FFFF82BF [R/W] ________
$FFFF82C0 [R/W] _______0  ........................... VIDEO-CONTROL HI
                       |
                       +--Horizontal Base Offset:
                             0: 128 Video cycles
                             1: 64 Video cycles
$FFFF82C1 [R/W] 76543210  ........................... VIDEO-CONTROL LO
                ||||||||  Video mode control bits
                ||||||||  Bits 0 & 1 set as $FFFF8006 Bits 6 & 7
                ||||||00--Monochrome monitor [ SM124 ]
                ||||||01--Colour monitor [ SC1224 und SC1435 ]
                ||||||10--VGA monitor
                ||||||11--TV set
                |||||+---Video base clock: 0: 32MHz/1: 25.175MHz
                |||||
                ||||+---15 Halfline-HSyncs from start of bottom
                ||||      border [ 0:Off / 1:On ]
                |||+----??Unknown??
                ||+-----VSync-switch: 0:neg've(5V>0V)/ 1:pos've(0V>5V)
                |+------HSync-switch: 0:neg've(5V>0V)/ 1:pos've(0V>5V)
                +-------Video data-bus width: 0:16 Bits/ 1:32 Bits
                          Falcon030 has a *32* Bit Video data-bus

$FFFF82C2 [R/W] ________  .............................. VIDEO-MODE HI
$FFFF82C3 [R/W] ____3210  ......................................... LO
                    ||||
                    |||+--Double Line mode [ 0:Off / 1:On ]
                    ||+---Interlace [ 0:Off / 1:On ]
                    ||
                    ||    Sets Video divider AND Cycles/pixel:
                    ||    - Video system divider in Falcon mode
                    ||      when Video-Mode-Control bits = %10 (VGA):
                    00----4
                    01----2
                    10----2
                    11----n/a (Video system not clocked)
                    ||      For all other Video-Mode-Control values:
                    00----4
                    01----2
                    10----1
                    11----n/a
                    ||      For STE Compatibility mode,no matter what
                    ||      Video-Mode-Control-Bits are set:
                    00----16
                    01----16
                    10----16
                    11----n/a
                    ||
                    ||    - Pixel cycle-length: (i.e. cycles/pixel)
                    00----4 cycles long
                    01----2 cycles long
                    10----1 cycle long
                    11----n/a

*********************************************************************
                  2 5 6   C O L O R     R E G I S T E R S
*********************************************************************

$FFFF9800 [R/W] :$FC 765432__ ............... FALCON-COLOR $00  Red
                     ||||||
                     ++++++------ 0-63: Red Brightness
$FFFF9801 [R/W] :$FC 765432__ ............... FALCON-COLOR $00 Green
                     ||||||
                     ++++++------ 0-63: Green Brightness
$FFFF9802 [R/W] :$00 ******
$FFFF9803 [R/W] :$00 765432__ ............... FALCON-COLOR $00  Blue
                     ||||||
                     ++++++------ 0-63: Blue Brightness
    :       :     :    :
    :       :     :    :
    :       :     :    :
$FFFF9BFC [R/W] :$00 765432__ ................ FALCON-COLOR $FF  Red
$FFFF9BFD [R/W] :$00 765432__ ................ FALCON-COLOR $FF Green
$FFFF9BFE [R/W] :$00 ******
$FFFF9BFF [R/W] :$00 765432__ ................ FALCON-COLOR $FF Blue


---------------------------------------------------------------------------
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
Video System Standard Values in RGB and TV mode, 50 Hz:

       FALCON VIDEOREGISTERS $82xx.w:  (All hexadecimal word values!)
MODE   | 10| 60| 66| 82| 84| 86| 88| 8A| 8C| A2| A4| A6| A8| AA| AC| C0| C2
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
ST-LOW: 050 000 000 03E 032 009 23F 01C 034 271 265 02F 06F 1FF 26B 081 000
ST-MED: 050 010 000 03E 032 009 23F 01C 034 271 265 02F 06F 1FF 26B 081 004
ST-HIG: 028 0x0 400 1FE 199 050 3EF 0A0 1B2 270 265 02F 07E 20E 26B 181 006
  2/80: 028 0x0 400 1FE 199 050 3EF 0A0 1B2 271 265 02F 07F 20F 26B 181 004
  4/40: 028 010 000 03E 030 008 239 012 034 271 265 02F 07F 20F 26B 181 000
  4/80: 050 010 000 03E 030 008 002 020 034 271 265 02F 07F 20F 26B 181 004
 16/40: 050 0x0 000 0FE 0CB 027 00C 06D 0D8 271 265 02F 07F 20F 26B 181 000
 16/80: 0A0 0x0 000 1FE 199 050 04D 0FE 1B2 271 265 02F 07F 20F 26B 181 004
256/40: 0A0 0x0 010 0FE 0CB 027 01C 07D 0D8 271 265 02F 07F 20F 26B 181 000
256/80: 140 0x0 010 1FE 199 050 05D 10E 1B2 271 265 02F 07F 20F 26B 181 004
TRU/40: 140 0x0 100 0FE 0CB 027 02E 08F 0D8 271 265 02F 07F 20F 26B 181 000
TRU/80: 280 0x0 100 1FE 199 050 071 122 1B2 271 265 02F 07F 20F 26B 181 004
+ INTERLACE:                                -1         -1 -1         +2


MODE DESCRIPTIONS: Compatibility mode or 'colours/column'

(WARNING!  ST-High Values are already interlaced on RGBs!)

---------------------------------------------------------------------------
Video System Standard Values in VGA Modes, 60 Hz (59.58 Hz on Falcon):
(Double-Line on)

       FALCON VIDEO-REGISTERS $82xx.w:  (All hexadecimal word values)
MODE   | 10| 60| 66| 82| 84| 86| 88| 8A| 8C| A2| A4| A6| A8| AA| AC| C0| C2
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
ST-LOW: 050 000 000 017 012 001 20E 00D 011 419 3AF 08F 08F 3AF 415 186 005
ST-MED: 050 010 000 017 012 001 20E 00D 011 419 3AF 08F 08F 3AF 415 186 009
ST-HIG: 028 0x0 400 0C6 08D 015 273 050 096 419 3AF 08F 08F 3AF 415 186 008
  2/80: 028 0x0 400 0C6 08D 015 273 050 096 419 3FF 03F 03F 3FF 415 186 009
  4/40: 028 010 000 017 012 001 20A 009 011 419 3FF 03F 03F 3FF 415 186 005
  4/80: 050 010 000 017 012 001 20E 00D 011 419 3FF 03F 03F 3FF 415 186 009
 16/40: 050 0x0 000 0C6 08D 015 28A 06B 096 419 3FF 03F 03F 3FF 415 186 005
 16/80: 0A0 0x0 000 0C6 08D 015 2A3 07C 096 419 3FF 03F 03F 3FF 415 186 009
256/40: 0A0 0x0 010 0C6 08D 015 29A 07B 096 419 3FF 03F 03F 3FF 415 186 005
256/80: 140 0x0 010 0C6 08D 015 2AB 084 096 419 3FF 03F 03F 3FF 415 186 009
TRU/40: 140 0x0 100 0C6 08D 015 2AC 091 096 419 3FF 03F 03F 3FF 415 186 005
TRU/80: (officially impossible)

DOUBLE LINE OFF:                                                        -1

---------------------------------------------------------------------------
Video System Standard Values on SM 124, 71 Hz:

       FALCON VIDEO-REGISTERS $82xx.w:  (Allhexadecimal word values!)
MODE   | 10| 60| 66| 82| 84| 86| 88| 8A| 8C| A2| A4| A6| A8| AA| AC| C0| C2
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
ST-HIG: 028 020 000 01A 000 000 20F 00C 014 3E9 000 000 043 363 3E7 080 008
---------------------------------------------------------------------------


Caution: This documentation should not  be  seen  as a reference work,
but merely enables  a  brief  introduction  to  the  video system. All
values were  measured  using  an  oscilloscope  and  confirmed  by the
operating system. There will however be differences between the values
of OS-registers and my calculated  values  since  the XBIOS may change
some display control registers afterwards.


Horizontal Time-Setup:
======================

Construction of screenlines:

                           1 Raster line
|<------------------------------------------------------------------>|
|                                                                    |
|       1st Half-line                        2nd Half-line           |
|<------------------------------>|<--------------------------------->|
|                                |                                   |
|~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~|~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~|
|    |      |                                     |       |    |     |
|    |      |<----------------------------------->|       |    |     |
|    |                       #5                           |    |     |
|    |                                                    |    |     |
|<-->|<-------------------------------------------------->|    |<--->|
  #1                         #2                           |       #4 |
                                                          |          |
                                                          |<-------->|
                                                                #3
#1: left display border
#2: visible screen area
#3: right display border
#4: HSync impulse
#5: graphic display area  [area  where  screen  data  is translated to
bitmaps]

Every raster line (even  in  the  border  area)  is constructed in the
following way: left border,  visible  area  (with graphic display when
applicable), and  finally the right border, with the Hsync impulses in
the right border. Basically we can  say  that one line is divided into
two half-lines: to be able  to  calculate the horizontal registers for
the screen's half-lines we need a few details:

   - Video base clock: 32MHz, 25.175 MHz or external clock
                                    RGB/TV   VGA      Monochrome
 - Monitor's horizontal frequency:  15625 Hz 31467 Hz 35714 Hz
 - Duration of Hsync impulse:       4.7us    3.81us   3.00 us
 - Duration of right border:        6.2us    4.45us   0.00 us
 - Duration of left border:         5.145us  1.91us   0.00 us

These values are used by  the  operating  system.  The duration of the
Hsync impulse should not be  changed,  and  the border duration should
not be significantly reduced.

In the video system, the time setup is measured in clock-cycles . As a
result a  certain  number  of  clock-cycles  must  elapse  until  (for
example) the right border becomes active. The combined contents of the
registers depends upon the above time settings (these can of course be
altered, there are really no hard-and-fast values for the video system
itself, apart from the requirements  of  the monitors), upon the video
base clock  and  the  video  clock  divider  which  divides  the  base
frequency.

The video clock divider is  set  through Video-Mode ($82C2), bits 2/3,
and is connected with the  Video-Mode Control Bits (Video-Control bits
0/1) or via the  STe  compatibility  mode.  Important  note: the video
clock divider and cycles/pixel are  _both_  controlled  by bits 2/3 of
Video-Mode.

First, to calculate the following horizontal registers:

HHT (Horizontal-Hold-Timer) defines the  number  of  video cycles in a
half-line:

                |         Video base frequency               |
HHT($8282) = int|---------------------------------------- - 2|
                |Horizontal frequency in Hz * Divider * 2    |

The Horizontal-Hold-Counter ($8280) is set up according to the HHT and
counts the individual clock impulses up  to  the  value of HHT. If the
valueis exceeded, that is HHC  =  HHT+1,  then  the first half-line is
finished andthe counter starts again  from  the beginning for the next
half-line.  In this way the HHT contains the number of clock cycles in
a half-line.All following registers must  lie  with  the values of HHT
minus 1, sincethey contain  the  Video  counter  position  at which an
action (such asthe start of the left border etc.) is carried out.


HSS (Horizontal Sync Start) denotes  at  what  video clock position in
thesecond half-line the Hysnc impulse  should  be triggered, until the
end of that half-line:
                          |HSyncduration in us * Video base clock |
HSS($828A) = HHT + 1 - int|-------------------------------------- |
                          |               Divider                 |

If HSS is greater than HHT+1 then no Vsync impulse is triggered.


HBB (Horizontal Border Begin) denotes at  what video clock position in
thesecond half-line the right  border  should  be triggered, until the
end of that half-line:
                          |rt bord duration in us * Video base clock |
HBB($8284) = HHT + 1 - int|------------------------------------------|
                          |                Divider                   |

If HSS is greater than HHT+1 then no border is present.
If a monochrome monitor (e.g. SM124) is used then the HBB has no
significance and no border is present.


HBE (Horizontal Border End) denotes the Video Counter position in the
first half-line where the left border should cease being active:

                |left border duration in us * Video base clock |
HBE($8286) = int|----------------------------------------------|
                |                  Divider                     |

If HBE is greater than  HHT+1  then  a  border is produced across both
half-lines. If a monochrome monitor (e.g.  SM124) is used then the HBE
has no significance and no border is present.

Now for the interesting bit:  the  horizontal graphic display. I spent
most of my time and a lot  of  effort  on  this part and isn't easy to
understand.

The video system has  a  peculiar  way  of representing the horizontal
graphic display. First of all we  define  in which half-line (first or
second, according to bit  9  of  the  HDB-register  $8288) the graphic
display should be initiated. If this  is defined then the video system
waits in the chosen half-line until  the  contents of HHC reaches that
of the HDB register ($8288)  and  then  it starts the graphic display.
Before this, though, the video system lies  in a 'Wait state' (I've no
idea why, perhaps to unburden the bus a bit or to load the first chunk
of graphic data into the internal VIDEL-buffer.)

The length of this wait state  can  be worked out from the HDB-offset.
The graphic display is not begun until after this is reached. The HDE
(Horizontal Display End, $828A) then  defines  the  right hand edge of
the graphic display. This operates in the same way as described above;
first the system waits until  HHC  has  reached  the  value of the HDE
register and again inserts a pause,  to  end the graphic display after
this. The wait state's length can  be  worked out from the HDE-offset.
In contrast to the HDB, the HDE  can  only  be set in the second half-
line.


Now for the offsets:

The wait-state which  the  video  system  inserts  before  the graphic
display  can  be  calculated  from  the  HDB-offset.  This  offset  is
dependent upon the number of bitplanes and the chosen divider, as well
as the pixel cycle-length  which  defines  the  resolution. However we
draw a distinction between the bitplane and truecolour modes:

In Falcon bitplane mode:
              |         |8 Words*16 Pixels      |                |
              |Base Off+|----------------- +16+2| * Cycles/pixel |
              |         |  No. of planes        |                |
HDB-Offset=int|--------------------------------------------------| + 1
              |                    Divider                       |

In STe-compatible bitplane mode:
              |             |8 Words*16 Pixels   |                |
              |64+Base Off +|---------------- + 2| * Cycles/pixel |
              |             |  No. of planes     |                |
HDB-Offset=int|---------------------------------------------------|+1
              |                     Divider                       |

In Truecolour mode:
                |Base offset + 16 Pixels * Cycles/pixel |
HDB-Offset = int|---------------------------------------| + 1
                |                 Divider               |

The Base Offset is set  in  the  Video-Control Register ($82C0) bit 8.
When the bit is cleared then 128  cycles are taken as the Base Offset,
64 if the bit is  set.  If  an  STe-compatible mode is selected, which
uses the STe palette, 64 must be added to the Base Offset - apparently
for compatibility reasons.


The wait-state which  the  video  system  inserts  before  the graphic
display can be calculated  from  the  HDE-offset.  This offset is also
dependent upon the number of bitplanes and the chosen divider, as well
as the pixel cycle-length, which defines  the resolution. Here as well
we must differentiate between bitplane and truecolour modes:

In Falcon and STE-compatible bitplane mode:
              ||8 Words*16 Pixels    |                |
              ||----------------- + 2| * Cycles/pixel |
              ||  No. of planes      |                |
HDE-Offset=int|---------------------------------------|
              |                Divider                |


In Truecolour mode:
HDE-Offset = 0

When calculating the HDB and HDE  it  should be noted, that the number
of  horizontal  pixels  cannot  be   defined  arbitrarily,  except  in
Truecolour mode. We can arrive at the allowed pixel multiple using the
following formula:
                             8 Words * 16 Pixels
Horizontal pixel multiple =  -------------------
                                No. of planes

In truecolour mode  a  fine  definition  of  1  pixel  is possible. In
bitplane mode an  incorrect  setting  of  HDB  and  HBE  leads to nice
effects like the overlapping of planes or holes without any graphics.

An example:
Only pixel multiples of 128 are allowed in 2-colour mode. HDB/HBE must
be set so that on the screen  a  multiple of of 128 pixels shown. This
is why no 2-colour,  40  column  mode  is  supported  by the operating
system, because 320 is not divisible by 128.

So, now to calculating the HDB and HBE:

Preamble: when  discussing  the  video-system,  we  must  get  used to
talking about 'cycles' and not 'pixels'. The number of pixels is given
by cycles divided by cycles/pixel. So if we want a 32Mhz clock and a 4
cycles/pixel, then  the  theoretically  possible  number  of pixels is
8000000. Often that is also indicated  by a 'video bandwidth' of 8Mhz.
So we assume that  the  graphic  display  should  be  started after 50
cycles and the graphic display should be 1280 cycles in length. Now we
have a choice of 1,2 or 4  cycles/pixel or 1280,640 or 320 pixels. Now
I shall choose to  have  2  cycles/pixels  and  correspondingly have a
display of 640 pixels.  We  must  still  take  into  account the clock
divider which correponds to this,  which  in turn affects the bitplane
and compatibility-modes.

I'll now choose the 16-colour Falcon mode  and  with this I MUST use a
divider of 2, because the number  of  cycles/pixel AND the divider are
represented by the same bits (see register $FF82C0.)

Now we can calculate the HDB offset (for the formula, see above.) Here
we must be careful to use the formula for the Falcon video-modes.

Vertical Time Setup
===================

Every screen setup is made built out of from half-lines. The number of
half-lines is defined by the  vertical  frequency, in conjunction with
the HHT which defines the  duration  of  one  half-line.  If we have a
horizontal frequency of 15625Hz,  then  312.5  lines or 625 half-lines
are needed to produce a vertical frequency of 50Hz. HHT of course MUST
be set up so that a  horizontal  frequency of 15625Hz is produced (see
above.)

Here again some monitor-dependent details will be necessary:

                                  TV/RGB  50HzTV/RGB 60HzVGA  SM124
 - Monitor's Horizontal frequency:15625 Hz  15625 Hz 31467 Hz 35714 Hz
 - Monitor's Vertical frequency:  50 Hz     59.52 Hz 59.58 Hz 71.43 Hz
 - Duration of VSync impulse:     0.192ms   0.192ms  0.064ms  0.029 ms
 - Duration of top border:        1.504ms   0.700ms  1.008ms  0.000 ms
 - Duration of bottom border:     0.384ms   0.384ms  0.416ms  0.000 ms

These values are also used by the  OS. The Vsync impulse should not be
changed and the borders not significantly reduced.
It should be noted that  the  video  system  in 60Hz is programmed for
~59.5Hz.

Now here are the calculations for the individual vertical registers:

VFT (Vertical Frequency Timer)  defines  the  number of half-lines per
VBL:
                |Horizontal frequency  |
VFT($82A2) = int|----------------------| * 2 (+ 1)
                | Vertical frequency   |      ^^^-when not interlaced

The Half-line counter VFC($82A0) is  set  up  according to the VFT and
counts individual half-lines up to the value of VFT. The VFC is always
incremented when the  HHC  exceeds  the  value  of  the  HHT. When VFC
reaches the value of the VFT, the  screen  setup  is at an end and the
counter begins again. The VFT affects all the following registers.
The value of VFT should always be an odd number, unless interlace mode
is enabled. In this case VFT,  VDB  and VDE should always contain even
values.

VSS (Vertical Sync  Start)  defines  from  which  half-line  the Vsync
impulse should be triggered, until the screen end:

VSS($82AC) = VFT - int|VSync-Time in ms * Horizontal frequency in Hz *
2|

VBB (Vertical Border Begin)  defines  from  which half-line the bottom
border should be active, until the screen end:
VBB($82A4) = VFT - int|bottom border dur. in ms * Horiz.freq. * 2|

If a monochrome monitor is connected VDB has no significance and no
border is displayed.


VBE (Vertical Border End) defines until which half-line the top border
should be active, from the screen start:
VBE($82A6) = VFT - int|bottom border time in ms * Horiz.freq. * 2|

If  a  monochrome  monitor  (e.g.  SM124)  is  connected  VDB  has  no
significance and no border is displayed.




Setup of graphic display area:
==============================

VDB (Vertical Display Begin)  defines  at  which half-line the graphic
display should begin:
VDB($82A8) = No. of lines * 2 (+ 1)
                               ^^^------- when not in interlace mode
If VDB is greater than VFT then no graphic display occurs.
If VDB is greater than VDE then graphic display occurs from VDB to
 VFT. The VDE register is then ignored.



VDE defines at which half-line the graphic display should cease:
VDE($82AA) = No. of lines * 2 (+ 1)
                               ^^^------- when not in interlace mode
If VDE is less than VDB then no graphic display occurs. [?????????]
If VDE is less than VDB then graphic display occurs from VDB to
 VFT. The VDE register is then ignored.


The number of graphic-display lines is calculated by halving (due to
the half-lines) the difference between VDB and VDE.





----------------------------------------------------------------------
Incidental remarks:
In Burst Mode, the video system  reads  17  32-bit data words into the
VIDEL's FIFO buffer. The system requires 4 cycles per burst-cycle.

When setting the Video-Mode-Control  bits  by  writing to $FF8260 [ST-
Shift], the registers $FF8210 and $FF82C2 are automatically set by the
video sytem so that an ST-compatible  mode  is produced (see also reg.
$FF8260.) The effects all depend upon  what  type of monitor is set in
the Video-Control bits: the  registers  will  be  changed according to
this.

Switching to 2-colour mode appears to  confuse the video system. Often
we find that although all  the  registers  have been correctly set the
visible graphic area is out of line  or cut off. This can be prevented
by the  use  of  'CLR.W  $FFFF8266.W'  before  setting  the resolution
through the Falcon and STe-shift  registers.  This  is also the reason
why  the  operating  system  does  not   produce  a  similar  lack  of
synchronisation.

######################################################################
######### research and documentation by AURA and A.M. ################
######################################################################
(Transl. by Steve Tattersall)


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