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ZOO(1)                  REFERENCE MANUAL                   ZOO(1)

     zoo - manipulate archives of files in compressed form

     zoo {acfDeghHlLPTuUvVx}[aAcCdEfghImMnNoOpPqSu1:/.@n+-=]
     archive [file] ...
     zoo -command archive [file] ...
     zoo h

     Zoo is used to create and maintain collections of files in
     compressed form.  It uses a Lempel-Ziv compression algorithm
     that gives space savings in the range of 20% to 80% depend-
     ing on the type of file data.  Zoo can store and selectively
     extract multiple generations of the same file.  Data can be
     recovered from damaged archives by skipping the damaged por-
     tion and locating undamaged data with the help of fiz(1).

     This documentation is for version 2.1.  Changes from previ-
     ous versions are described in the section labelled CHANGES.

     The command zoo h gives a summary of commands.  Extended
     multiscreen help can be obtained with zoo H.

     Zoo will not add an archive to itself, nor add the archive's
     backup (with .bak extension to the filename) to the archive.

     Zoo has two types of commands:  Expert commands, which con-
     sist of one command letter followed by zero or more modifier
     characters, and Novice commands, which consist of a hyphen
     (`-') followed by a command word that may be abbreviated.
     Expert commands are case-sensitive but Novice commands are

     When zoo adds a file to an existing archive, the default
     action is to maintain one generation of each file in an
     archive and to mark any older generation as deleted.  A
     limit on the number of generations to save can be specified
     by the user for an entire archive, or for each file indivi-
     dually, or both.  Zoo deletes a stored copy of an added file
     if necessary to prevent the number of stored generations
     from exceeding the user-specified limit.

     Deleted files may be later undeleted.  Archives may be
     packed to recover space occupied by deleted files.

     All commands assume that the archive name ends with the
     characters .zoo unless a different extension is supplied.

     Novice commands

     Novice commands may be abbreviated to a hyphen followed by
     at least one command character.  Each Novice command works
     in two stages. First, the command does its intended work.
     Then, if the result was that one or more files were deleted
     in the specified archive, the archive is packed.  If packing
     occurs, the original unpacked archive is always left behind
     with an extension of .bak.

     No Novice command ever stores the directory prefix of a

     The Novice commands are as follows.

     -add    Adds the specified files to the archive.

          Adds a specified file to the archive if and only if an
          older file by the same name already exists in the

          Deletes the specified files from the archive.

          Adds a specified file to the archive either:  if an
          older file by the same name already exists in the
          archive or:  if a file by the same name does not
          already exist in the archive.

          Extracts the specified files from the archive.  If no
          file is specified all files are extracted.

          Equivalent to -add except that source files are deleted
          after addition.

          Equivalent to -extract except that extracted data are
          sent to standard output.

          Gives information about the specified archived files
          including any attached comments.  If no files are
          specified all files are listed.  Deleted files are not

          Equivalent to -extract except that the extracted data
          are not saved but any errors encountered are reported.

          Allows the user to add or update comments attached to
          archived files.  When prompted, the user may:  type a
          carriage return to skip the file, leaving any current
          comment unchanged;  or type a (possibly null) comment
          of up to 32,767 characters terminated by /end (case-
          insensitive) on a separate line;  or type the end-of-
          file character (normally control D) to skip all remain-
          ing files.

          Deletes the specified files.

     The correspondence between Novice and Expert commands is as follows.

     Novice                                        Equivalent
     Command    Description                        Expert Command
     -add       add files to archive               aP:
     -extract   extract files from archive         x
     -move      move files to archive              aMP:
     -test      test archive integrity             xNd
     -print     extract files to standard output   xp
     -delete    delete files from archive          DP
     -list      list archive contents              VC
     -update    add new or newer files             aunP:
     -freshen   by add newer files                 auP:
     -comment   add comments to files              c

     Expert commands

     The general format of expert commands is:

     zoo {acfDeghHlLPTuUvVx}[aAcCdEfghImMnNoOpPqSu1:/.@n+-=]
     archive [file] ...

     The characters enclosed within {} are commands.  Choose any
     one of these.  The characters enclosed within [] just to the
     right of the {} are modifiers and zero or more of these may
     immediately follow the command character.  All combinations
     of command and modifier characters may not be valid.

     Files are added to an archive with the command:

     zoo {au}[cfhIMnPqu:+-] archive [file] ...

     Command characters are:

     a    Add each specified file to archive.  Any already-
          archived copy of the file is deleted if this is neces-
          sary to avoid exceeding the user-specified limit on the
          number of generations of the file to maintain in the

     u    Do an update of the archive.  A specified file is added
          to the archive only if a copy of it is already in the
          archive and the copy being added is newer than the copy
          already in the archive.

     The following modifiers are specific to these commands.

     M    Move files to archive.  This makes zoo delete (unlink)
          the original files after they have been added to the
          archive.  Files are deleted after addition of all files
          to the archive is complete and after any requested
          packing of the archive has been done, and only if zoo
          detected no errors.

     n    Add new files only.  A specified file is added only if
          it isn't already in the archive.

     h    Use the high performance compression algorithm. This
          option may be used with either the add (a) or filter
          (f) commands to gain extra compression at the expense
          of using somewhat more processor time. Extracting files
          compressed with the method is usually slightly faster
          than those saved with the default method.

     P    Pack archive after files have been added.

     u    Applied to the a command, this modifier makes it behave
          identically to the u command.

          The combination of the n modifier with the u modifier
          or u command causes addition of a file to the archive
          either if the file is not already in the archive, or if
          the file is already in the archive but the archived
          copy is older than the copy being added.

     :    Do not store directory names.  In the absence of this
          modifier zoo stores the full pathname of each archived

     I    Read filenames to be archived from standard input. Zoo
          will read its standard input and assume that each line
          of text contains a filename.  Under AmigaDOS and the
          **IX family, the entire line is used.  Under MS-DOS and
          VAX/VMS, zoo assumes that the filename is terminated by
          a blank, tab, or newline; thus it is permissible for
          the line of text to contain more than one field
          separated by white space, and only the first field will
          be used.

          Under the **IX family of operating systems, zoo can be
          used as follows in a pipeline:

               find . -print | zoo aI sources

          If the I modifier is specified, no filenames may be
          supplied on the command line itself.

     +,-  These modifiers take effect only if the a command
          results in the creation of a new archive.  + causes any
          newly-created archive to have generations enabled.  -
          is provided for symmetry and causes any newly-created
          archive to have generations disabled;  this is also the
          default if neither + nor - is specified.

     Files are extracted from an archive with the command:

     zoo {ex}[dNoOpqS./@] archive [file] ...

     The e and x commands are synonymous.  If no file was speci-
     fied, all files are extracted from the archive.

     The following modifiers are specific to the e and x com-

     N    Do not save extracted data but report any errors

     O    Overwrite files.  Normally, if a file being extracted
          would overwrite an already-existing file of the same
          name, zoo asks you if you really want to overwrite it.
          You may answer the question with `y', which means yes,
          overwrite; or `n', which means no, don't overwrite; or
          `a', which means assume the answer is `y' for this and
          all subsequent files.  The O modifier makes zoo assume
          that files may always be overwritten.  Neither answer-
          ing the question affirmatively nor using O alone will
          cause read-only files to be overwritten.

          On **IX systems, however, doubling this modifier as OO
          will force zoo to unconditionally overwrite any read-
          protected files with extracted files if it can do so.

          The O, N, and p modifiers are mutually exclusive.

     S    Supersede newer files on disk with older extracted
          files.  Unless this modifier is used, zoo will not
          overwrite a newer existing file with an older extracted

     o    This is equivalent to the O modifier if and only if it
          is given at least twice.  It is otherwise ignored.

     p    Pipe extracted data to standard output.  Error messages
          are piped to standard output as well.  However, if a
          bad CRC is detected, an error message is sent both to
          standard error and to standard output.

     /    Extract to original pathname.  Any needed directories
          must already exist.  In the absence of this modifier
          all files are extracted into the current directory.  If
          this modifier is doubled as //, required directories
          need not exist and are created if necessary.

     The management of multiple generations of archived files is
     done with the commands:

     zoo gl[Aq]{+-=}number archive files ..
     zoo gc[q]{+-=}number archive files ..
     zoo gA[q]- archive
     zoo gA[q]+ archive

     The first form, gl, adjusts the generation limit of selected
     files by the specified value.  If the form =n is used, where
     n is a decimal number, this sets the generation limit to the
     specified value.  If + or - are used in placed of = the
     effect is to increment or decrement the generation limit by
     the specified value.  For example, the command

          zoo gl=5 xyz :

     sets the generation limit of each file in the archive
     xyz.zoo to a value of 5.  The command

          zoo gl-3 xyz :

     decrements the generation limit of each file in the archive
     to 3 less than it currently is.

     If the A modifier is used, the archive-wide generation limit
     is adjusted instead.

     The number of generations of a file maintained in an archive
     is limited by the file generation limit, or the archive gen-
     eration limit, whichever is lower.  As a special case, a
     generation limit of 0 stands for no limit.  Thus the default
     file generation limit of 0 and archive generation limit of 3
     limits the number of generations of each file in a newly-
     created archive to three.

     The generation limit specified should be in the range 0
     through 15;  any higher numbers are interpreted modulo 16.

     The second form of the command, using gc, adjusts the gen-
     eration count of selected files.  Each file has a generation
     count of 1 when it is first added to an archive.  Each time
     a file by the same name is added again to an archive, it
     receives a generation count that is one higher than the
     highest generation count of the archived copy of the file.
     The permissible range of generation counts is 1 through
     65535.  If repeated manipulations of an archive result in
     files having very high generation counts, they may be set
     back to lower numbers with the gc command.  The syntax of
     the command is analogous to the syntax of the gl command,
     except that the A modifier is not applicable to the gc com-

     The third form, gA-, disables generations in an archive.
     Generations are off when an archive is first created, but
     may be enabled with the fourth form of the command, gA+.
     When generations are disabled in an archive, zoo will not
     display generation numbers in archive listings or maintain
     multiple generations.  Generations can be re-enabled at any
     time, though manipulation of an archive with repeated inter-
     spersed gA- and gA+ commands may result in an archive whose
     behavior is not easily understandable.

     Archived files are listed with the command:

     zoo {lLvV}[aAcCdfgmqvV@/1+-] archive[.zoo] [file] ...

     l    Information presented includes the date and time of
          each file, its original and current (compressed) sizes,
          and the percentage size decrease due to compression
          (labelled CF or compression factor).  If a file was
          added to the archive in a different timezone, the
          difference between timezones is shown in hours as a
          signed number.  As an example, if the difference is
          listed as +3, this means that the file was added to the
          archive in a timezone that is 3 hours west of the
          current timezone.  The file time listed is, however,
          always the original timestamp of the archived file, as
          observed by the user who archived the file, expressed
          as that user's local time.  (Timezone information is
          stored and displayed only if the underlying operating
          system knows about timezones.)

          If no filename is supplied all files are listed except
          deleted files.

          Zoo selects which generation(s) of a file to list
          according to the following algorithm.

          If no filename is supplied, only the latest generation
          of each file is listed.  If any filenames are
          specified, and a generation is specified for an argu-
          ment, only the requested generation is listed.  If a
          filename is specified ending with the generation char-
          acter (`:' or `;'), all generations of that file are
          listed.  Thus a filename argument of the form zoo.c
          will cause only the latest generation of zoo.c to be
          listed;  an argument of the form zoo.c:4 will cause
          generation 4 of zoo.c to be listed;  and an argument of
          the form zoo.c: or zoo.c:* will cause all generations
          of zoo.c to be listed.

     L    This is similar to the l command except that all sup-
          plied arguments must be archives and all non-deleted
          generations of all files in each archive appear in the

          On **IX systems, on which the shell expands arguments,
          if multiple archives are to be listed, the L command
          must be used.  On other systems (VAX/VMS, AmigaDOS,
          MSDOS) on which wildcard expansion is done internally
          by zoo, wildcards may be used in the archive name, and
          a multiple archive listing obtained, using the l com-

     v    This causes any comment attached to the archive to be
          listed in addition to the other information.

     V    This causes any comment attached to the archive and
          also any comment attached to each file to be listed.

          Both the V and v command characters can also be used as
          modifiers to the l and L commands.

     In addition to the general modifiers described later, the
     following modifiers can be applied to the archive list com-

     a    This gives a single-line format containing both each
          filename and the name of the archive, sorted by archive
          name.  It is especially useful with the L command,
          since the result can be further sorted on any field to
          give a master listing of the entire contents of a set
          of archives.

     A    This causes any comment attached to the archive to be

     g    This modifier causes file generation information to be
          listed about the archive.  For each file listed, the
          user-specified generation limit, if any, is listed.
          For example, `3g' for a file means that the user wants
          no more than three generations of the file to be kept.
          In archives created by older versions of zoo, the list-
          ing will show `-g', meaning that no generation informa-
          tion is kept and multiple generations of the file are
          not being maintained.

          In addition to the generation information for each
          file, the archive-wide generation limit, if any, is
          shown at the end of the listing.  If generations have
          been disabled by the user, this is so indicated, for

               Archive generation limit is 3 (generations off).

          For more information about generations see the descrip-
          tion of the g command.

     m    This modifier is currently applicable to **IX systems
          only.  It causes the mode bits (file protection code)
          of each file to be listed as a three-digit octal
          number.  Currently zoo preserves only the lowest nine
          mode bits.  Their meanings are as described in the **IX
          documentation for the chmod(1) command.

     C    This modifier causes the stored cyclic redundancy code
          (CRC) for each archived file to be shown as a four-
          digit hexadecimal number.

     1    This forces one filename to be listed per line.  It is
          most useful in combination with the f modifier.

     /    This forces any directory name to be always listed,
          even in fast columnized listings that do not normally
          include any directory names.

     +,-  The - modifier causes trailing generation numbers to be
          omitted from filenames.  The + modifier causes the
          trailing generation numbers to be shown, which is also
          the default if neither - nor + is specified.

     Files may be deleted and undeleted from an archive with the
     following commands:

     zoo {DU}[Pq1] archive file ...

     The D command deletes the specified files and the U command
     undeletes the specified files.  The 1 modifier (the digit
     one, not the letter ell) forces deletion or undeletion of at
     most one file.  If multiple instances of the same file exist
     in an archive, use of the 1 modifier may allow selective
     extraction of one of these.

     Comments may be added to an archive with the command:

     zoo c[A] archive

     Without the modifier A, this behaves identically to the
     -comment command.  With the modifier A, the command serves
     to add or update the comment attached to the archive as a
     whole.  This comment may be listed with the lA, LA, v, and V
     commands.  Applying the cA command to an archive that was
     created with an older version of zoo will result in an error
     message requesting that the user first pack the archive with
     the P command.  This reorganizes the archive and creates
     space for the archive comment.

     The timestamp of an archive may be adjusted with the com-

     zoo T[q] archive

     Zoo normally attempts to maintain the timestamp of an
     archive to reflect the age of the newest file stored in it.
     Should the timestamp ever be incorrect it can be fixed with
     the T command.

     An archive may be packed with the command:

     zoo P[EPq] archive

     If the backup copy of the archive already exists, zoo will
     refuse to pack the archive unless the P modifier is also
     given.  The E modifier causes zoo not to save a backup copy
     of the original archive after packing.  A unique temporary
     file in the current directory is used to initially hold the
     packed archive.  This file will be left behind if packing is
     interrupted or if for some reason this file cannot be
     renamed to the name of the original archive when packing is

     Packing removes any garbage data appended to an archive
     because of Xmodem file transfer and also recovers any wasted
     space remaining in an archive that has been frequently
     updated or in which comments were replaced.  Packing also
     updates the format of any archive that was created by an
     older version of zoo so that newer features (e.g. archive-
     wide generation limit, archive comment) become fully avail-

     Zoo can act as a pure compression or uncompression filter,
     reading from standard input and writing to standard output.
     This is achieved with the command:

     zoo f{cu}[h

     where c specifies compression, u specifies uncompression,
     and h used in addition requests the high-performance
     compression be used.  A CRC value is used to check the
     integrity of the data.  The compressed data stream has no
     internal archive structure and contains multiple files only
     if the input data stream was already structured, as might be
     obtained, for example, from tar or cpio.

      Modem transfers can be speeded up with these commands:

               zoo fc < file | sz ... rz | zoo fu > file

     General modifiers

     The following modifiers are applicable to several commands:

     c    Applied to the a and u commands, this causes the user
          to be prompted for a comment for each file added to the
          archive.  If the file being added has replaced, or is a
          newer generation of, a file already in the archive, any
          comment attached to that file is shown to the user and
          becomes attached to the newly-added file unless the
          user changes it.  Possible user responses are as
          described for the -comment command.  Applied to the
          archive list command l, the c modifier causes the list-
          ing of any comments attached to archived files.

      .   In conjunction with / or // this modifier causes any
          extracted pathname beginning with `/' to be interpreted
          relative to the current directory, resulting in the
          possible creation of a subtree rooted at the current
          directory.  In conjunction with the command P the .
          modifier causes the packed archive to be created in the
          current directory.  This is intended to allow users
          with limited disk space but multiple disk drives to
          pack large archives.

     d    Most commands that act on an archive act only on files
          that are not deleted.  The d modifier makes commands
          act on both normal and deleted files.  If doubled as
          dd, this modifier forces selection only of deleted

     f    Applied to the a and u commands, the f modifier causes
          fast archiving by adding files without compression.
          Applied to l it causes a fast listing of files in a
          multicolumn format.

     q    Be quiet.  Normally zoo lists the name of each file and
          what action it is performing.  The q modifier
          suppresses this.  When files are being extracted to
          standard output, the q modifier suppresses the header
          preceding each file.  When archive contents are being
          listed, this modifier suppresses any header and
          trailer.  When a fast columnized listing is being
          obtained, this modifier causes all output to be com-
          bined into a single set of filenames for all archives
          being listed.

          When doubled as qq, this modifier suppresses WARNING
          messages, and when tripled as qqq, ERROR messages are
          suppressed too.  FATAL error messages are never

     Recovering data from damaged archives

     The @ modifier allows the user to specify the exact position
     in an archive where zoo should extract a file from, allowing
     damaged portions of an archive to be skipped.  This modifier
     must be immediately followed by a decimal integer without
     intervening spaces, and possibly by a comma and another
     decimal integer, giving a command of the form l@m or l@m,n
     (to list archive contents) or x@m or x@m,n (to extract files
     from an archive).  Listing or extraction begin at position m
     in the archive.  The value of m must be the position within
     the archive of an undamaged directory entry.  This position
     is usually obtained from fiz(1) version 2.0 or later.

     If damage to the archive has shortened or lengthened it, all
     positions within the archive may be changed by some constant
     amount.  To compensate for this, the value of n may be
     specified.  This value is also usually obtained from fiz(1).
     It should be the position in the archive of the file data
     corresponding to the directory entry that has been specified
     with m.  Thus if the command x@456,575 is given, it will
     cause the first 456 bytes of the archive to be skipped and
     extraction to begin at offset 456;  in addition, zoo will
     attempt to extract the file data from position 575 in the
     archive instead of the value that is found in the directory
     entry read from the archive.  For example, here is some of
     the output of fiz when it acts on a damaged zoo archive:

         2526: DIR  [changes] ==>   95
         2587: DATA
         3909: DIR  [copyrite] ==> 1478
         3970: DATA
         4769: DATA

     In such output, DIR indicates where fiz found a directory
     entry in the archive, and DATA indicates where fiz found
     file data in the archive.  Filenames located by fiz are
     enclosed in square brackets, and the notation "==>   95"
     indicates that the directory entry found by fiz at position
     2526 has a file data pointer to position 95.  (This is
     clearly wrong, since file data always occur in an archive
     after their directory entry.)  In actuality, fiz found file
     data at positions 2587, 3970, and 4769.  Since fiz found
     only two directory entries, and each directory entry
     corresponds to one file, one of the file data positions is
     an artifact.

     In this case, commands to try giving to zoo might be
     x@2526,2587 (extract beginning at position 2526, and get
     file data from position 2587), x@3090,3970 (extract at 3090,
     get data from 3970) and x@3909,4769 (extract at 3909, get
     data from 4769).  Once a correctly-matched directory
     entry/file data pair is found, zoo will in most cases syn-
     chronize with and correctly extract all files subsequently
     found in the archive.  Trial and error should allow all
     undamaged files to be extracted.  Also note that self-
     extracting archives created using sez (the Self-Extracting
     Zoo utility for MS-DOS), which are normally executed on an
     MS-DOS system for extraction, can be extracted on non-MSDOS
     systems using zoo's damaged-archive recovery method using
     the @ modifier.

     Wildcard handling

     Under the **IX family of operating systems, the shell nor-
     mally expands wildcards to a list of matching files.  Wild-
     cards that are meant to match files within an archive must
     therefore be escaped or quoted.  When selecting files to be
     added to an archive, wildcard conventions are as defined for
     the shell.  When selecting files from within an archive,
     wildcard handling is done by zoo as described below.

     Under MS-DOS and AmigaDOS, quoting of wildcards is not
     needed.  All wildcard expansion of filenames is done by zoo,
     and wildcards inside directory names are expanded only when
     listing or extracting files but not when adding them.

     The wildcard syntax interpreted by zoo is limited to the
     following characters.

     *    Matches any sequence of zero or more characters.

     ?    Matches any single character.

          Arbitrary combinations of * and ? are allowed.

     /    If a supplied pattern contains a slash anywhere in it,
          then the slash separating any directory prefix from the
          filename must be matched explicitly.  If a supplied
          pattern contains no slashes, the match is selective
          only on the filename.

     c-c  Two characters separated by a hyphen specify a charac-
          ter range.  All filenames beginning with those charac-
          ters will match.  The character range is meaningful
          only by itself or preceded by a directory name.  It is
          not specially interpreted if it is part of a filename.

     : and ;
          These characters are used to separate a filename from a
          generation number and are used when selecting specific
          generations of archived files.  If no generation char-
          acter is used, the filename specified matches only the
          latest generation of the file.  If the generation char-
          acter is specified, the filename and the generation are
          matched independently by zoo's wildcard mechanism.  If
          no generation is specified following the : or ; charac-
          ter, all generations of that file will match.  As a
          special case, a generation number of 0 matches only the
          latest generation of a file, while ^0 matches all gen-
          erations of a file except the latest one.  If no
          filename is specified preceding the generation charac-
          ter, all filenames will match.  As a corollary, the
          generation character by itself matches all generations
          of all files.

     MS-DOS users should note that zoo does not treat the dot as
     a special character, and it does not ignore characters fol-
     lowing an asterisk.  Thus * matches all filenames; *.*
     matches filenames containing a dot; *_* matches filenames
     containing an underscore;  and *z matches all filenames that
     end with the character z, whether or not they contain a dot.

     Usage hints

     The Novice command set in zoo is meant to provide an inter-
     face with functionality and format that will be familiar to
     users of other similar archive utilities.  In keeping with
     this objective, the Novice commands do not maintain or use
     any subdirectory information or allow the use of zoo's abil-
     ity to maintain multiple generations of files.  For this
     reason, users should switch to exclusively using the Expert
     commands as soon as possible.

     Although the Expert command set is quite large, it should be
     noted that in almost every case, all legal modifiers for a
     command are fully orthogonal.  This means that the user can
     select any combination of modifiers, and when they act
     together, they will have the intuitively obvious effect.
     Thus the user need only memorize what each modifier does,
     and then can combine them as needed without much further

     For example, consider the a command which is used to add
     files to an archive.  By itself, it simply adds the speci-
     fied files.  To cause only already-archived files to be
     updated if their disk copies have been modified, it is only
     necessary to add the u modifier, making the command au.  To
     cause only new files (i.e., files not already in the
     archive) to be added, the n modifier is used to create the
     command an.  To cause both already-archived files to be
     updated and new files to be added, the u and n modifiers can
     be used together, giving the command aun.  Since the order
     of modifiers is not significant, the command could also be

     Further, the c modifier can be used to cause zoo to prompt
     the user for a comment to attach to each file added.  And
     the f modifier can cause fast addition (addition without
     compression).  It should be obvious then that the command
     auncf will cause zoo to update already-archived files, add
     new files, prompt the user for comments, and do the addition
     of files without any compression.  Furthermore, if the user
     wishes to move files to the archive, i.e., delete the disk
     copy of each file after it is added to the archive, it is
     only necessary to add the M modifier to the command, so it
     becomes auncfM.  And if the user also wishes to cause the
     archive to be packed as part of the command, thus recovering
     space from any files that are replaced, the command can be
     modified to auncfMP by adding the P modifier that causes

     Similarly, the archive listing commands can be built up by
     combining modifiers.  The basic command to list the contents
     of an archive is l.  If the user wants a fast columnized
     listing, the f modifier can be added to give the lf command.
     Since this listing will have a header giving the archive
     name and a trailer summarizing interesting information about
     the archive, such as the number of deleted files, the user
     may wish to "quieten" the listing by suppressing these;  the
     relevant modifier is q, which when added to the command
     gives lfq.  If the user wishes to see the **IX mode (file
     protection) bits, and also information about multiple gen-
     erations, the modifiers m (show mode bits) and g (show gen-
     eration information) can be added, giving the command lfqmg.
     If the user also wishes to see an attached archive comment,
     the modifier A (for archive) will serve.  Thus the command
     lfqmgA will give a fast columnized listing of the archive,
     suppressing any header and trailer, showing mode bits and
     generation information, and showing any comment attached to
     the archive as a whole.  If in addition individual comments
     attached to files are also needed, simply append the c
     modifier to the command, making it lfqmgAc.  The above com-
     mand will not show any deleted files, however;  to see them,
     use the d modifier, making the command lfqmgAcd (or double
     it as in lfqmgAcdd if only the deleted files are to be
     listed).  And if the user also wishes to see the CRC value
     for each file being listed, the modifier C will do this, as
     in the command lfqmgAcdC, which gives a fast columnized
     listing of all files, including deleted files, showing any
     archive comment and file comments, and file protection codes
     and generation information, as well as the CRC value of each

     Note that the above command lfqmgAcdC could also be abbrevi-
     ated to VfqmgdC because the command V is shorthand for lcA
     (archive listing with all comments shown).  Similarly the
     command v is shorthand for lA (archive listing with archive
     comment shown).  Both V and v can be used as modifiers to
     any of the other archive listing commands.


     By default, zoo assumes that only the latest generation of a
     specified file is needed.  If generations other than the
     latest one need to be selected, this may be done by specify-
     ing them in the filename.  For example, the name stdio.h
     would normally refer to the latest generation of the file
     stdio.h stored in a zoo archive.  To get an archive listing
     showing all generations of stdio.h in the archive, the
     specification stdio.h:* could be used (enclosed in single
     quotes if necessary to protect the wildcard character * from
     the shell).  Also, stdio.h:0 selects only the latest genera-
     tion of stdio.h, while stdio.h:^0 selects all generations
     except the latest one.  The : character here separates the
     filename from the generation number, and the character * is
     a wildcard that matches all possible generations.  For con-
     venience, the generation itself may be left out, so that the
     name stdio.h: (with the : but without a generation number or
     a wildcard) matches all generations exactly as stdio.h:*

     If a generation is specified but no filename is present, as
     in :5, :*, or just :, all filenames of the specified genera-
     tion will be selected.  Thus :5 selects generation 5 of each
     file, and :* and : select all generations of all files.

     It is important to note that zoo's idea of the latest gen-
     eration of a file is not based upon searching the entire
     archive.  Instead, whenever zoo adds a file to an archive,
     it is marked as being the latest generation.  Thus, if the
     latest generation of a file is deleted, then no generation
     of that file is considered the latest any more.  This can be
     surprising to the user.  For example, if an archive already
     contains the file stdio.h:5 and a new copy is added, appear-
     ing in the archive listing as stdio.h:6, and then stdio.h:6
     is deleted, the remaining copy stdio.h:5 will no longer be
     considered to be the latest generation, and the file
     stdio.h:5, even if undeleted, will no longer appear in an
     archive listing unless generation 5 (or every generation) is
     specifically requested.  This behavior will likely be
     improved in future releases of zoo.

     xXXXXXX - temporary file used during packing
     archive_name.bak - backup of archive

     compress(1), fiz(1)

     When files are being added to an archive on a non-MS-DOS
     system, it is possible for zoo to fail to detect a full disk
     and hence create an invalid archive.  This bug will be fixed
     in a future release.

     Files with generation counts that wrap around from 65535 to
     1 are not currently handled correctly.  If a file's genera-
     tion count reaches a value close to 65535, it should be
     manually set back down to a low number.  This may be easily
     done with a command such as gc-65000, which subtracts 65000
     from the generation count of each specified file.  This
     problem will be fixed in a future release.

     Although zoo on **IX systems preserves the lowest nine mode
     bits of regular files, it does not currently do the same for

     Currently zoo's handling of the characters : and ; in
     filenames is not robust, because it interprets these to
     separate a filename from a generation number.  A quoting
     mechanism will eventually be implemented.

     Standard input cannot be archived nor can a created archive
     be sent to standard output.  Spurious error messages may
     appear if the filename of an archive is too long.

     Since zoo never archives any file with the same name as the
     archive or its backup (regardless of any path prefixes),
     care should be taken to make sure that a file to be archived
     does not coincidentally have the same name as the archive it
     is being added to.  It usually suffices to make sure that no
     file being archived is itself a zoo archive.  (Previous ver-
     sions of zoo sometimes tried to add an archive to itself.
     This bug now seems to be fixed.)

     Only regular files are archived; devices and empty direc-
     tories are not.  Support for archiving empty directories and
     for preserving directory attributes is planned for the near

     Early versions of MS-DOS have a bug that prevents "." from
     referring to the root directory;  this leads to anomalous
     results if the extraction of paths beginning with a dot is

     VAX/VMS destroys case information unless arguments are
     enclosed in double quotes.  For this reason if a command
     given to zoo on a VAX/VMS system includes any uppercase
     characters, it must be enclosed in double quotes.  Under
     VAX/VMS, zoo does not currently restore file timestamps;
     this will be fixed as soon as I figure out RMS extended
     attribute blocks, or DEC supplies a utime() function, which-
     ever occurs first.  Other VMS bugs, related to file struc-
     tures, can often be overcome by using the program bilf.c
     that is supplied with zoo.

     It is not currently possible to create a zoo archive con-
     taining all zoo archives that do not contain themselves.

     Error messages are intended to be self-explanatory and are
     divided into three categories.  WARNINGS are intended to
     inform the user of an unusual situation, such as a CRC error
     during extraction, or -freshening of an archive containing a
     file newer than one specified on the command line.  ERRORS
     are fatal to one file, but execution continues with the next
     file if any.  FATAL errors cause execution to be aborted.
     The occurrence of any of these causes an exit status of 1.
     Normal termination without any errors gives an exit status
     of 0.  (Under VAX/VMS, however, to avoid an annoying mes-
     sage, zoo always exits with an error code of 1.)

     All versions of zoo on all systems are required to create
     archives that can be extracted and listed with all versions
     of zoo on all systems, regardless of filename and directory
     syntax or archive structure;  furthermore, any version of
     zoo must be able to fully manipulate all archives created by
     all lower-numbered versions of zoo on all systems.  So far
     as I can tell, this upward compatibility (all manipulations)
     and downward compatiblity (ability to extract and list) is
     maintained by zoo versions up to 2.01.  Version 2.1 adds the
     incompatibility that if high-performance compression is
     used, earlier versions cannot extract files compressed with
     version 2.1.  This is the only incompatibility that is
     permissible.  You are forbidden, with the force of copyright
     law, to create from the zoo source code any derivative work
     that violates this compatibility goal, whether knowingly or
     through negligence.  If any violation of this compatibility
     goal is observed, this should be considered a serious prob-
     lem and reported to me.

     Here is a list of changes occurring from version 1.50 to
     version 2.01.  In parentheses is given the version in which
     each change occurred.

     -    (1.71) New modifiers to the list commands permit
          optional suppression of header and trailer information,
          inclusion of directory names in columnized listings,
          and fast one-column listings.

     -    (1.71) Timezones are handled.

     -    (1.71) A bug was fixed that had made it impossible to
          individually update comments for a file whose name did
          not correspond to MS-DOS format.

     -    (1.71) A change was made that now permits use of the
          shared library on the **IX PC.

     -    (1.71) VAX/VMS is now supported reasonably well.

     -    (2.00) A comment may now be attached to the archive

     -    (2.00) The OO option allows forced overwriting of
          read-only files.

     -    (2.00) Zoo will no longer extract a file if a newer
          copy already exists on disk;  the S option will over-
          ride this.

     -    (2.00) File attributes are preserved for **IX systems.

     -    (2.00) Multiple generations of the same file are sup-

     -    (2.00) Zoo will now act as a compression or decompres-
          sion filter on a stream of data and will use a CRC
          value to check the integrity of a data stream that is

     -    (2.00) A bug was fixed that caused removal of a direc-
          tory link if files were moved to an archive by the
          superuser on a **IX system.

     -    (2.00) The data recovery modifier @ was greatly
          enhanced.  Self-extracting archives created for MS-DOS
          systems can now be extracted by zoo on any system with
          help from fiz(1).

     -    (2.01) A bug was fixed that had caused the first gen-
          eration of a file to sometimes unexpectedly show up in
          archive listings.

     -    (2.01) A bug was fixed that had caused the MS-DOS ver-
          sion to silently skip files that could not be extracted
          because of insufficient disk space.

     -    (2.01) A bug was fixed that had sometimes made it
          impossible to selectively extract a file by specifying
          its name, even though all files could be extracted from
          the archive by not specifying any filenames.  This
          occurred when a file had been archived on a longer-
          filename system (e.g. AmigaDOS) and extraction was
          attempted on a shorter-filename system (e.g. MS-DOS).

     -    (2.01) A change was made that will make zoo preserve
          the mode (file protection) of a zoo archive when it is
          packed.  This is effective only if zoo is compiled to
          preserve and restore file attributes.  Currently this
          is so only for **IX systems.

     -    (2.01) A bug was fixed that had caused an update of an
          archive to not always add all newer files.

     -    (2.01) Blanks around equal signs in commands given to
          "make" were removed from the mk* scripts for better
          compatiblity with more **IX implementations including

     -    (2.1) Compression is now greatly improved if the "h"
          option is used.

     -    (2.1) The default behavior is to preserve full path-
          names during extraction.

     -    (2.1) On some systems, extraction of files using the
          older (default) compression method is greatly speeded

     -    (2.1) Extended multiscreen help is available.

     -    (2.1) Memory allocation is improved, so that the MS-DOS
          version will not prematurely abort when updating a
          large archive.

     -    (2.1) The VAX/VMS version preserves file timestamps
          during extraction.

     -    (2.1) The default archive-wide generation limit, when
          generations are enabled, is 3.

     A revised version of zoo is in the works that will be able
     to write newly-created archives to standard output and will
     support multivolume archives.  It will be upward and down-
     ward compatible with this version of zoo.

     The zoo archiver was initially developed using Microsoft C
     3.0 on a PC clone manufactured by Toshiba of Japan and
     almost sold by Xerox.  Availability of the following systems
     was helpful in achieving portability: Paul Homchick's Compaq
     running Microport System V/AT;  The Eskimo BBS somewhere in
     Oregon running Xenix/68000; Greg Laskin's system 'gryphon'
     which is an Intel 310 running Xenix/286;  Ball State
     University's AT&T 3B2/300, UNIX PC, and VAX-11/785 (4.3BSD
     and VAX/VMS) systems.  In addition J. Brian Waters provided
     feedback to help me make the code compilable on his Amiga
     using Manx/Aztec C.  The executable version 2.0 for MS-DOS
     is currently compiled with Borland's Turbo C++ 1.0.

     Thanks are due to the following people and many others too
     numerous to mention.

     J. Brian Waters <jbwaters@bsu-cs.bsu.edu>, who has worked
     diligently to port zoo to AmigaDOS, created Amiga-specific
     code, and continues keeping it updated.

     Paul Homchick <rutgers!cgh!paul>, who provided numerous
     detailed reports about some nasty bugs.

     Bill Davidsen <davidsen@crdos1.crd.ge.com>, who provided
     numerous improvements to this manual, contributed mul-
     tiscreen help, and provided many useful bug reports, bug
     fixes, code improvements, and suggestions.

     Mark Alexander <amdahl!drivax!alexande>, who provided me
     with some bug fixes.

     Haruhiko Okumura, who wrote the ar archiver and some excel-
     lent compression code, which I adapted for use in zoo.

     Randal L. Barnes <rlb@skyler.mavd.honeywell.com>, who (with
     Randy Magnuson) wrote the code to support the preservation
     of file timestamps under VAX/VMS.

     Raymond D. Gardner, who contributed replacement uncompres-
     sion code that on some systems is twice as fast as the

     Greg Yachuk and Andre Van Dalen, who independently modified
     MS-DOS zoo to support multivolume archives.  (This support
     is not yet in this official release.)

     Rahul Dhesi

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